Table 2

Characteristics of pancreatic autoantibody (Ab) positive and negative participants (n=1778 with known antibody status)

Ab positive (n=1510)Ab negative (n=268)P values
Individual characteristics
 Age20.1 (13.1–31.1)31.4 (17.7–41.0)0.0001
 Male56 (851)72 (192)<0.0001
 Children41 (614)25 (66)<0.0001
 Body mass index
  Children (z score, n=545, 56)*0.41 (−0.35 to 1.19)0.47 (−0.48 to 0.97)0.4
  Adult (kg/m2, n=825, 184)23.9 (21.4–26.7)25.5 (23.1–29.2)0.0001
 Overweight (n=1370, 240)36 (490)48 (114)0.0005
 White European ethnicity86 (1413)14 (232)<0.0001
 Other autoimmune disease (n=1495, 265)8 (117)4 (10)0.01
 Parent(s) with any diabetes (n=1493, 261)16 (233)28 (74)<0.0001
 Siblings with any diabetes (n=1374, 238)9 (117)8 (20)0.9
Diabetes presentation
 Clinical presentation
  Ketoacidosis (n=1483, 260)43 (639)40 (104)0.3
  Osmotic symptoms (n=1495, 267)97 (1444)94 (250)0.02
  Weight loss (n=1480, 267)87 (1285)88 (235)0.5
  Fatigue (n=1490, 265)86 (1282)80 (213)0.01
 Symptom duration (weeks, n=1424, 246)** 6.8 (10.5)10.4 (32.2)0.004
  • Percentages (n) or medians (IQR) are shown.

  • Sample sizes (n) are given for each variable if data collection was incomplete.

  • *The children’s BMI z-scores expressed as percentiles (median (IQR)) were 66% (36%-88%) in the autoantibody positive (n=545) and 68% (32%-83%) in the autoantibody negative (n=56).

  • **Median and IQRs for symptom duration were identical: 4 (2–8); mean and SD is shown to clarify the direction of difference.