Table 1

Demographic characteristics of women booking for antenatal care stratified by HIV status and antiretroviral treatment

Womens' characteristicsTotal
(n=2105)
Known HIV+ on ART
(n=556)
Known HIV+ not on ART
(n=444)
Newly diagnosed
(n=512)
HIV negative
(n=593)
P values*
Age (years)28 (24–33)31 (28–34)29 (26–32)26 (22–30)27 (23–32)
Age category
 18–24532 (25)51 (9)77 (17)187 (37)217 (37)<0.001
 25–341235 (59)368 (66)307 (69)276 (54)284 (48)
 35–44338 (16)137 (25)60 (14)49 (9)92 (15)
Parity1 (1–2)2 (1–2)2 (1–2)1 (0–2)1 (0–2)<0.001
Completed high school601 (29)109 (20)103 (23)359 (70)236 (40)<0.001
Employment status
 Employed833 (39)210 (38)144 (32)200 (39)275 (46)<0.001
Housing
 Informal1100 (52)318 (57)236 (53)270 (53)276 (47)0.005
Socioeconomic status (SES)
 Low524 (25)166 (30)132 (30)139 (27)87 (15)
 Low-moderate469 (22)134 (24)103 (23)108 (21)124 (21)
  Moderate-high565 (27)164 (30)116 (26)127 (25)158 (27)
 High541 (26)92 (16)93 (21)138 (27)218 (37)
Married/cohabiting882 (43)258 (47)200 (47)180 (36)244 (42)<0.001
Disclosed HIV status to current partner816 (55)462 (84)289 (67)65 (13)NA<0.001
Single-item question—current pregnancy
 Unintended1347 (64)310 (56)291 (66)343 (67)403 (68)<0.001
 Intended752 (36)244 (44)152 (34)167 (33)189 (32)
 Unsure5 (0)2 (0)1 (0)2 (0)0 (0)
Used contraceptives in the past 12 months1459 (69)414 (74)287 (65)320 (63)438 (74)<0.001
Contraceptive method used in the past 12 months
 None646 (31)142 (26)157 (36)192 (38)155 (26)<0.001
 Oral contraceptive57 (3)5 (1)8 (2)12 (3)32 (5)
 Injectable752 (36)152 (27)139 (31)155 (30)306 (52)
 IUD8 (0)022 (0)4 (1)
 Sterilisation1 (0)0001 (0)
 Condom641 (30)257 (46)138 (31)151 (29)95 (16)
Discussed family planning with partner in the past 12 months964 (49)275 (54)198 (49)235 (50)256 (44)0.006
  • Values are given as number (percentage) or median (IQR).

  • 2 or Fisher’s exact tests were used to assess bivariate associations.

  • ART, antiretroviral therapy; HIV+, HIV positive; IUD, intrauterine device; NA, not applicable.