Table 1

Study characteristics

Study type and setting, locationFollow-up/look-back period, years (SD)Mean age,  years (SD)Female,  n (%)Education level, n (%)Dropout rate/response rate percentageBaseline cognition measureAnxiety measure; cut-offBaseline anxiety, n (%)Controls for depression; baseline depression measureDementia diagnosis; criteria (no of cases); OR/HR (95% CI)
Boot et al 19 (N=441)Population-based matched case-controlled, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota, USALifelong diagnoses documented by medical record72.5 (7.3) —DLB cases age at diagnosis103 (23.1)>9 years education; (95)NRNRClinical diagnosis, present in medical history section of medical record23 (27) cases;
14 (5) controls
Yes; clinical diagnosis from medical history recordDLB diagnosis by behavioural neurologist; published criteria by McKeith et al 25 (n=147); OR 7.4 (3.5 to 16)
et al 20
Prospective, community-based cohort; Caerphilly, Wales, UKMean follow-up period; 17.3 (1.3)56.1 (4.4)—mean age at inclusion0No qualifications; 601 (55)20NR; dementia unlikely at inclusion (mean age <60 years)STAI; score of ≥35585 (50)Yes; GHQ-30Dementia diagnosis; DSM-IV or medical records (n=90);
OR 1.62 (0.59 to 4.41)
Petkus et al 21 (N=1082)Prospective, community based cohort; Swedish twins drawn from Swedish Twin Registry, SwedenFollow-up period; 28 (0)60.86 (11.15)—mean age at inclusion612 (56.6)Beyond elementary education;
423 (39)
29.8MMSEState anxiety subscale of STPI;
STPI>1 SD Q1-Q4 (assessments over four time points)
403 (37)Yes; OARS Depression Subscale, CES-DDementia diagnosis; DSM-III or DMS-IV (n=172);
HR 1.48 (1.01 to 2.18)
et al 18 (N=27 136)
Population-based matched case-controlled, Western AustraliaMean look-back period; cases 20.4 (10.4), controls 20.0 (10.3)78.7 (4.7)—mean age at final time point15 359 (56.6)NR6.17 (excluded
NRClinical diagnosis using ICD-10 AM (Australian Modification) codes documented in health records; meeting diagnostic threshold379 (2.8) casesYes; clinical diagnosis by GPDementia diagnosis; ICD-10 (n=13 568); OR 1.61 (1.28 to 2.02) (>10 years look-back period)
  • CES-D, Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression Subscale; DLB, Dementia with Lewy bodies; DSM III/IV, Diagnostic and Statistical  Manual of Mental Disorders III/IV; GHQ-30, 30-item General Health Questionnaire; GP, general practitioner; ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; NR, not recorded; OARS, older American resources and services; STAI, State Trait Anxiety Inventory; STPI, State Trait Personality Inventory.