Table 1

Distribution of 30-day readmission cases according to patient characteristics

Readmission n=200No readmission n=1556Crude OR (95%CI)P values
Sociodemographic
Age median (range)80 (65–101)78 (64–100)1.02 (0.99–1.04)0.07
Age group
  65–74 years56 (28.0%)501 (32.2%)1
  75–84 years98 (49.0%)729 (46.9%)1.20 (0.85–1.70)0.31
 >84 years46 (23.0%)326 (20.5%)1.26 (0.83–1.91)0.27
Sex
  Female64 (32.0%)622 (40.0%)1
  Male136 (68.0%)934 (60.0%)1.44 (1.05–1.97)0.02
Educational level
  No/primary education153 (78.1%)1118 (72.4%)1
  Secondary or higher43 (21.9%)427 (27.6%)0.75 (0.51–1.10)0.14
Marital status
  Married/cohabiting116 (58.0%)912 (58.6%)1
  Single21 (10.5%)107 (6.9%)1.56 (0.94–2.59)0.09
  Widowed/divorced63 (31.5%)536 (34.4%)0.93 (0.67–1.29)0.66
Cohabitation
 Lives alone31 (15.5%)289 (18.6%)1
 Lives with cohabitant aged >15 years155 (77.5%)1203 (77.4%)1.20 (0.80–1.80)0.39
 Lives with cohabitant aged <15 years14 (7.0%)63 (4.1%)2.03 (1.02–4.04)0.04
Lifestyle factors
Smoking status
  Non-smoker79 (39.5%)693 (44.5%)1
  Smoker16 (8.0%)138 (8.9%)1.04 (0.59–1.83)0.90
  Ex-smoker105 (52.5%)725 (46.6%)1.28 (0.94–1.75)0.11
High alcohol consumption
  No197 (98.5%)1524 (97.9%)1
  Yes3 (1.5%)32 (2.1%)1.38 (0.42–4.54)0.60
Prior utilisation of resources
No of nurse visits in last 90 days
  0–2147 (73.5%)1182 (76.4%)1
 ≥353 (26.5%)365 (23.6%)1.17 (0.82–1.65)0.39
No of hospital visits in last 90 days
  0–2164 (82.8%)1355 (87.6%)1
 ≥334 (17.2%)192 (12.4%)1.53 (1.02–2.31)0.04
Barthel Index
 Little or no dependency >90108 (54.0%)990 (63.6%)1
 Moderate-to-high dependency ≤9092 (46.0%)566 (36.4%)1.47 (1.08–2.01)0.01
Immunisations
Influenza vaccination in any of the three previous seasons
  No54 (27.0%)464 (29.8%)1
  Yes146 (73.0%)1092 (70.2%)1.16 (0.83–1.61)0.39
Pneumococcal vaccination in five previous years
  No161 (80.5%)1281 (82.3%)1
  Yes39 (19.5%)275 (17.7%)1.11 (0.76–1.62)0.58
Risk medical conditions
Chronic respiratory failure
  No136 (68.0%)1269 (81.6%)1
  Yes64 (32.0%)287 (18.4%)2.08 (1.50–2.88)<0.001
Pneumonia during the last 2 years
  No146 (73.0%)1267 (81.4%)1
  Yes54 (27.0%)289 (18.6%)1.65 (1.18–2.32)0.004
Any malignancy
  No161 (80.5%)1271 (81.7%)1
  Yes39 (19.5%)285 (18.3%)1.08 (0.74–1.58)0.67
Diabetes
  No139 (69.5%)1023 (65.7%)1
  Yes61 (30.5%)533 (34.3%)0.83 (0.60–1.14)0.26
Renal failure
  No151 (75.5%)1263 (81.2%)1
 Yes49 (24.5%)293 (18.8%)1.38 (0.97–1.96)0.07
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  No128 (64.0%)1074 (69.0%)1
  Yes72 (36.0%)482 (31.0%)1.25 (0.92–1.70)0.16
Heart failure
  No128 (64.0%)1168 (75.1%)1
 Yes72 (36.0%)388 (24.9%)1.69 (1.24–2.31)0.001
Chronic liver disease
  No186 (93.0%)1504 (96.7%)1
 Yes14 (7.0%)52 (3.3%)2.13 (1.15–3.94)0.01
Haemoglobinopathy or anaemia
  No160 (80.0%)1324 (85.1%)1
  Yes40 (20.0%)232 (14.9%)1.40 (0.96–2.04)0.08
Disabling neurological disease
  No179 (89.5%)1416 (91.0%)1
 Yes21 (10.5%)140 (9.0%)1.17 (0.72–1.90)0.52
Charlson Index
  No comorbidity (0)18 (9.0%)233 (15.0%)1
  Low comorbidity (1)54 (27.0%)378 (24.3%)1.83 (1.05–3.20)0.03
  High comorbidity (≥2)128 (64.0%)945 (60.7%)1.71 (1.02–2.86)0.04
Hospital care process
Intensive care unit
  No188 (94.5%)1499 (96.9%)1
  Yes11 (5.5%)48 (3.1%)1.93 (0.97–3.81)0.06
Mechanical ventilation
  No157 (78.5%)1317 (84.9%)1
 Yes43 (21.5%)235 (15.1%)1.50 (1.03–2.18)0.03
Pneumonia Severity Index
  I–III69 (34.7%)645 (41.7%)1
  IV–V130 (65.3%)902 (58.3%)1.40 (1.02–1.92)0.04
Length of hospital stay
 <8 days80 (40.0%)766 (49.2%)1
 ≥8 days120 (60.0%)790 (50.8%)1.45 (1.05–2.02)0.02
Antibiotic treatment
  No97 (50.3%)700 (46.6%)1
  Yes96 (49.7%)802 (53.4%)1.07 (0.76–1.50)0.70
Discharge disposition
 Home without services185 (92.5%)1477 (94.9%)1
 Home with home healthcare9 (4.5%)19 (1.2%)5.05 (1.58–16.15)0.01
 Social health centre6 (3.0%)60 (3.9%)1.23 (0.41–2.92)0.63