Table 1

Baseline characteristics of studies included in the analysis

Study (reference)YearCountryDesignRegistryTotal subjects*Enrolment periodFollow-up (years)Outcomes reported
Waters et al 8 1983WalesProspectiveRhonda Valley605/705196712All-cause mortality
Sternfeld et al 401995USARetrospectiveNorthern California Kaiser Permanente4319/74 962*1971–197315MI
Merikangas et al 38 1997USAProspectiveNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey1109/10 9821971–197510Stroke
Hall et al 34 2004UKRetrospectiveGeneral Practice Research Database63 575/77 2391992–19993All-cause mortality, stroke and MI
Velentgas et al 37 2004USARetrospectiveUnited Healthcare130 411/130 4111995–19991All-cause mortality, strokeand MI
Kurth et al (WHS)21 22 2006USAProspectiveWomen’s Health Study5125/22 7151992–199510MACCE, stroke and MI
Kurth et al (PHS)7 39 2007USAProspectivePhysician’s Health Study1449/18 6351981–198416MACCE, stroke and MI
Gudmundsson et al 33 2010IcelandProspectiveReykjavik Study2023/13711967–199126All-cause mortality and stroke
Kuo et al 35 2013TaiwanRetrospectiveTaiwan National Health Insurance20 925/104 62520012Stroke
Wang et al 32 2014TaiwanRetrospectiveTaiwan National Health Insurance11 541/11 54120012.5Stroke and MI
Åsberg et al 5 2016NorwayProspectiveHUNT2 Study6831/31 7371995–199714.1All-cause mortality
Peng et al 36 2016TaiwanProspectiveTaiwan National Health Insurance119 017/119 1072005–20093.6Stroke
Kurth et al (NHS)12 2016USARetrospectiveNurses’ Health Study17 531/98 010198920MACCE, stroke and MI
Androulakis et al 11 2016USAProspectiveAtherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study1622/10 0531987–198920Stroke
Rambarat et al 6 2017USAProspectiveWomen’s Ischaemia Syndrome Evaluation224/6931996–19996.5MACCE, Stroke, all-cause mortality and MI
Lantz et al 41 2017SwedenRetrospectiveSwedish population-based twin cohort8635/44 7691998–2002, 2005–200611.9Stroke
  • *Total patients are reported as migraine/no migraine arm.

  • †This study included two cohorts with different methods of migraine assessment.

  • HUNT2, second Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey; MACCE, major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events; MI, myocardial infarction; NHS, Nurses’ Health Study; PHS, Physician’s Health Study; WHS, Women’s Health Study.