Table 1

Characteristics of patients with T2DM with good and poor glycaemic control

Good glycaemic control 
HbA1c<7%
(n=689)
Poor glycaemic control HbA1c≥7%
(n=698)
P valueGood glycaemic control
FBG≤7.0 mmol/L
(n=596)
Poor glycaemic control
FBG>7.0 mmol/L
(n=791)
P value
Age
 18–39 years158 (22.9)81 (11.6)<0.001135 (22.7)104 (13.1)<0.001
 40–59 years323 (46.9)300 (43.0)247 (41.4)376 (47.5)
 ≥60 years208 (30.2)317 (45.4)214 (35.9)311 (39.3)
Sex0.1570.830
 Male405 (58.8)384 (55.0)341 (57.2)448 (56.6)
 Female284 (41.2)314 (45.0)255 (42.8)343 (43.4)
Education<0.001<0.001
  University/college166 (24.1)102 (14.6)145 (24.3)123 (15.5)
 Class 7–12333 (48.3)310 (44.4)268 (45.0)375 (47.4)
 Class 1–6122 (17.7)204 (29.2)117 (19.6)209 (26.4)
 No qualifications35 (5.1)67 (9.6)45 (7.6)57 (7.2)
 Unknown33 (4.8)15 (2.1)21 (3.5)27 (3.4)
Occupation0.0640.231
  Manual workers94 (13.6)121 (17.3)87 (14.6)128 (16.2)
 Non-manual workers138 (20.0)141 (20.2)127 (21.3)152 (19.2)
 Never worked/retired219 (31.8)317 (45.4)211 (35.4)325 (41.1)
 Unknown238 (34.5)119 (17.0)171 (28.7)186 (23.5)
Marital status0.2000.312
 Married510 (74.0)562 (80.5)446 (74.8)626 (79.1)
 Single/divorced/widowed55 (8.0)77 (11.0)61 (10.2)71 (9.0)
 Unknown124 (18.0)59 (8.5)89 (14.9)94 (11.9)
Residence0.0120.042
 Urban449 (65.2)412 (59.0)388 (65.1)473 (59.8)
 Rural231 (33.5)281 (40.3)202 (33.9)310 (39.2)
 Unknown9 (1.3)5 (0.7)6 (1.0)8 (1.0)
Health insurance0.5830.704
 Yes641 (93.0)644 (92.3)554 (93.0)731 (92.4)
 No48 (7.0)54 (7.7)42 (7.0)60 (7.6)
Smoking0.0760.505
 No567 (82.3)548 (78.5)484 (81.2)631 (79.8)
 Yes122 (17.7)150 (21.5)112 (18.8)160 (20.2)
Alcohol drinking0.1820.040
 No617 (89.6)609 (87.2)539 (90.4)687 (86.9)
 Yes72 (10.4)89 (12.8)57 (9.6)104 (13.1)
Family history of T2DM0.6040.095
 No429 (62.3)444 (63.6)390 (65.4)483 (61.1)
 Yes260 (37.7)254 (36.4)206 (34.6)308 (38.9)
Duration of T2DM
 ≤1 year207 (30.1)93 (13.3)<0.001173 (29.0)127 (16.1)<0.001
 >1 to 2 years77 (11.2)44 (6.3)55 (9.2)66 (8.3)
 >2 to 4 years72 (10.4)60 (8.6)53 (8.9)79 (10.0)
 >4 years291 (42.2)487 (69.8)275 (46.2)503 (63.6)
 Unknown42 (6.1)14 (2.0)40 (6.7)16 (2.0)
Number of visits to the diabetes centre for T2DM since registration8 (4,13)*8 (5,13)*0.3358 (4,13)*8 (5,13)*0.214
T2DM therapeutic regimen<0.001<0.001
 Only diet and physical activity99 (14.4)45 (6.4)92 (15.4)52 (6.6)
 Diet and physical activity+OHD335 (48.6)296 (42.4)267 (44.8)364 (46.0)
 Diet and physical activity+insulin38 (5.5)27 (3.9)31 (5.2)34 (4.3)
 Diet and physical activity+OHD+insulin217 (31.5)330 (47.3)206 (34.6)341 (43.1)
BMI0.8170.907
 Under22 (3.2)23 (3.3)21 (3.5)24 (3.0)
 Normal289 (41.9)280 (40.1)239 (40.1)330 (41.7)
 Overweight244 (35.4)265 (38.0)222 (37.3)287 (36.3)
 Obese101 (14.7)107 (15.3)89 (14.9)119 (15.1)
 Unknown33 (4.8)23 (3.3)25 (4.2)31 (3.9)
Hypertension0.0050.847
 No321 (46.6)273 (39.1)257 (43.1)337 (42.6)
 Yes368 (53.4)425 (60.9)339 (56.9)454 (57.4)
Hyperlipidaemia0.0510.025
 No164 (23.8)136 (19.5)146 (24.5)154 (19.5)
 Yes525 (76.2)562 (80.5)450 (75.5)637 (80.5)
  • n(%), p value excludes unknown.

  • *Median (IQR).

  • BMI, body mass index; FBG, fasting blood glucose; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; OHD, oral hypoglycaemic drug; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.