Table 1

OR and 95% CIs of premenstrual syndrome and alcohol drinking

SourceDesignCountryPopulationAny
drinking
Light drinkingModerate drinkingHeavy drinkingStudy size or
#cases / #controls
Adjustment variables
Wilsnack 198415 Cross-SectionalUSANational sample ≥21
years
1.11 (0.89–1.40)0.86 (0.59–1.25)1.15 (0.80–1.65)1.57 (0.99–2.49)2552Not specified
Stout 198627 Case-ControlUSAPatients 20–48 years3.32 (1.85–5.97)3.32 (1.85–5.97)223/923Not specified
Rossignol 199128 Cross-SectionalUSAStudents18-22 years2.11 (1.99–2.22)2.35 (1.64–3.37)2.10 (1.99–2.22)853Not specified
Caan 199329 Case-ControlUSAVolunteers2.00 (0.96–4.17)1.34 (0.82–2.19)1.40 (0.63–2.13)9.73 (2.68–35.29)102/102Age, ethnicity
Chuong 199330 Case-ControlUSAPatients3.74 (2.27–6.18)3.29 (1.95–5.56)5.39 (1.12–25.87)9.41 (1.14–77.57)190/182Not specified
Deuster 19999 Cross-SectionalUSAGeneral population 18–44 years2.5 (1.1–5.9)2.5 (1.1–5.9)874Age, ethnicity, age at menarche, length of menses, body mass index, education, smoking, stress score, diet, physical activity
Hourani 200431 Case-ControlUSANavy workers 18–49 years1.62 (1.08–2.42)1.62 (1.08–2.42)3861/2165Demographic variables and lifestyle
Strine 200510 Cross-sectionalUSANational sample 18–55 years1.4 (1.1–1.7)1.4 (1.1–1.7)11 648Age, ethnicity, education, marital status, employment status
Bryant 200621 Case-ControlUKVolunteers 18–47 years0.73 (0.28–1.85)31/27Age, body mass index
Gold 200713 Cross-SectionalUSAPopulation from a cohort 42–52 years0.98 (0.89–1.07)0.82 (0.66–1.01)1.02 (0.91–1.13)3012Not specified
Reed 200822 Case-ControlUSAVolunteers0.51 (0.13–1.93)14/15Not specified
Bertone-Johnson 200912 Case-ControlUSAPopulation from the Nurses’ Health Study1.13 (1.03–1.27)1.05 (0.91–1.201.28 (1.10–1.50)1.09 (0.92–1.28)1057/1968Age, diagnosis year, parity, contraception, smoking, pregnancies, body mass index, tubal ligation, antidepressants, childhood trauma, diet
Sadler 201014 Cross-SectionalUKGeneral population 20–34 years0.83 (0.65–1.08)0.83 (0.53–1.29)0.80 (0.51–1.25)0.87 (0.56–1.35)974Age, education, body mass index, smoking, stress, contraception
Skrzypulec-Plinta 201011 Cross-SectionalPolandGeneral population 18–45 years2.43 (0.86–6.89)1540Not specified
Forrester-Knauss 201132 Cross-SectionalSwitzerlandNational sample >50
years
0.59 (0.27–1.27)0.78 (0.58–1.04)0.34 (0.13–0.88)3518Not specified
Pinar 201133 Cross-SectionalTurkeyStudents18-28 years0.80 (0.43–1.48)316Not specified
Hong 201234 Cross-SectionalKoreaPopulation from a catchment area 18–49 years3.32 (1.76–6.27)3.32 (1.76–6.27)2499Age
Cheng 201335 Cross-SectionalTaiwanStudents2.85 (1.18–6.84)2.85 (1.18–6.84)1699Age, education, cycle regularity, smoking, exercise, diet
Ju 201536 CohortAustraliaGeneral population 18–23 years1.10 (1.05–1.14)1.17 (1.07–1.28)7102Age, drug use, education, marital status, income, residence, BMI, smoking, gynecologic variables, depression