Table 4

Included study outcomes

StudyDesign (time point/s)InterventionParticipantsDepartment/sOutcomesResults
Richman et al 38 Observational
(first programme in 1995, observation period to 2000)
ELAM85*Medicine and dentistryNo of participants in senior administrative positions (chair, vice chair, division chief, assistant and associate dean)Participants with senior administrative positions increased from 47.1% to 70.6%†
McDade et al 37 Within group pre-test and post-test
(baseline, 11 months after programme completion)
ELAM79*Medicine and dentistry67-item Likert-scale questionnaire to measure self-rated capability on 10 leadership constructs:
  • Knowledge of leadership, management and organisational theory

  • Environmental scanning

  • Financial management

  • Communication

  • Networking and coalition building

  • Conflict management

  • General leadership skills

  • Assessment of strengths and weaknesses

  • Acceptance of demands of leadership

  • Career advancement sophistication

Additional post-ELAM questions regarding satisfaction with programme
  • Improved self-rated leadership capability on all 10 domains post-ELAM, all statistically significant to P<0.001. MD=0.84–1.91

  • Overall satisfaction with ELAM programme

Stewart et al 33 Observational (1–2 years after implementation of workshops)Peer educationWhole departments (129 total)Medicine, basic science, engineering, literature, artsNo of women faculty in all specified departments (rank not specified)Increase in women faculty from 15.7% in 2000/2001 to 31.3% in 2002/2003 (P<0.05)
Jagsi et al 39 Post-test only
(9 years after programme formation)
Professional development grant121 total applicants
40 recipients
30 survey participants
Medicine
  • Retention among all recipients

  • Promotions among all recipients

  • Perceived efficacy, optimism among survey participants (qualitative only)

  • 90% retention (compared with 68% non-awarded)†

  • 55% promotion (compared with 30.9% non-awarded)†

  • Programme satisfaction very high overall

Seritan et al 42 Post-test only (1 year after programme formation)MulticomponentAll department (n not reported)
14 provided qualitative feedback
Psychiatry
  • No of women in department

  • Rank of women staff

  • Qualitative feedback (collected in a meeting)

  • Increase in women faculty from 29% to 33% in 1 year†

  • No change in rank representation†

  • Meeting participants reported a sense of community, belonging and empowerment

Gardiner et al 30 Controlled before and after
(baseline, end of programme, 6 years later)
Peer mentoringIntervention group: 22 (mostly at lecturer level with mixed teaching and research roles)
Control group: 46 (similar academic standing)
All
  • Retention

  • Promotion

  • Grant income

  • Publications

  • Subjective career outcomes

  • Perceptions of mentoring

  • Retention: 86% (intervention) vs 67% (control)†

  • Promotion: 68% (intervention) vs 43% (control)†

  • Annual grant income: US$6983 (intervention) vs US$2441 (control)†

  • Perceived capacity: significantly higher perceived capacity in intervention than control group (P<0.01)

  • No significant differences in career satisfaction, job satisfaction, career planning, work-related distress or work-related morale (all P>0.05)

Dannels et al 36 Controlled before and after
(baseline, 4 years after programme)
ELAMELAM group: 53
Comparison group: 172‡
Non-ELAM group: 25 (not accepted to ELAM)
Medicine34-item Likert-scale questionnaire of self-rated capability on eight constructs:
  • Knowledge of leadership theory

  • Environmental scanning

  • Financial management

  • Communication

  • Conflict management

  • Diversity competence

  • Reconciliation to demands of leadership

  • Leadership positioning

Demographic data regarding:
  • Academic rank

  • Promotion

  • Rank of chair or above: 63.5% (ELAM), 22.5% (comparison), 37% (non-ELAM) (all P>0.05)

  • Women at full professor rank increased over time in all programmes†:

    • ELAM 44.8% (2001) to 69.8% (2006)

    • Comparison 55.4% (2001) to 68.6% (2006)

    • Non-ELAM 46.1% (2001) to 48% (2006)

  • Self-rated capabilities significantly higher in ELAM than other groups in seven domains (all P<0.05); not statistically significant for diversity competence

Files et al 34 Within group pre-test and post-test (before and 10 months into programme)Peer mentoring4 (ranked at instructor level with no peer-reviewed papers)Medicine
  • Publications

  • Promotion

  • 26-item Likert-scale questionnaire of academic skills and career satisfaction. Key indicators:

    • Satisfaction with accomplishments

    • Achievement of necessary skills

    • Belief in necessary writing skills

  • 3 co-authored peer-reviewed manuscripts

  • All achieved promotion in academic rank from instructor to assistant professor

  • 30% improvement in key indicators†

Von Feldt et al 47 Post-test only (2 weeks after session)CV review93 CV review sessions
61 survey participants
Medicine26-item questionnaire of experience and satisfaction with sessions
  • 50%–66% of participants agreed that the experience was helpful and productive

  • 51% believed that they had at least 60% likelihood of being promoted to associated professor

Dutta et al 31 Within group pre-test and post-test
(baseline, 6 months, 1 year)
Peer mentoring46 mentoring pairs
44 survey participants (rank senior lecturer level or below)
PsychiatryValidated scales measuring
  • Job satisfaction

  • Job-related anxiety

  • Job-related depression

  • Self-esteem

  • Self-efficacy

  • Work–family conflict

Qualitative perceptions of benefits
  • Job satisfaction: no significant differences at 6 months or 1 year

  • Job-related anxiety: no differences at 6 months, significant improvement at 1 year (MD=0.40, P<0.01)

  • Job-related depression: no significant differences at 6 months or 1 year

  • Self-esteem: significant improvements at 6 months (MD=2.22, P<0.01) and 1 year (MD=2.62, P<0.01)

  • Self-efficacy: significant improvements at 6 months (MD=0.91, P=0.02) and 1 year (MD=1.07, P<0.01)

  • Work–family conflict: no difference at 6 months, significant improvement at 1 year (MD=−1.52, P=0.04)

  • Key benefits identified:

    • Confidence and assertiveness

    • Support and encouragement

    • Space to reflect on careers and goals

Carnes et al 45 Within group pre-test and post-test (immediately before and after workshop)Peer education167 faculty members, 53 administrative staff attended workshops
134 completed post-workshop evaluation
MedicineIncrease in self-reported knowledge on workshop content; plan to incorporate workshop elements into practiceImproved knowledge about†
  • Expectancy bias: 77.8%

  • Prescriptive gender norms: 68.6%

  • Role congruity/incongruity: 72.6%

  • Reconstructing credentials: 91.4%

  • Stereotype priming: 80.6%

  • Stereotype threat: 72.1%

  • Strategies for deliberate practice of non-biased behaviours: 82.9%

Plan to incorporate workshop elements into practice: 87%
Varkey et al 40 Within group pre-test and post-test
(baseline, 12 months)
Peer mentoring19 (rank either instructor or assistant professor)Medicine25-item questionnaire assessing self-efficacy, academic skills and career goals
  • Significant improvement in satisfaction with academic achievement, networking skills, skills necessary for academic success, skills necessary for publishing a research paper, and knowledge of how to access a mentor (all P<0.05)

  • No significant difference in skills related to developing clinical research projects

  • Nine manuscripts submitted, six published, a clinical research project completed

Bauman et al 46 Observational
(programme established in 2000, observation from 2001 to 2011)
MulticomponentWhole department; n not reportedMedicine
  • No of women faculty over time

  • Retention rate

  • Increase in women faculty from 138 (2001) to 235 (2011)†

  • Increase in women chairs from 1 (2001) to 5 (2011)†

  • Majority of faculty women either satisfied or very satisfied with their careers

Valantine et al43 Observational
(programme implemented in 2001; observation from 2004 to 2010, surveys 2003 and 2008)
MulticomponentWhole department, 234 at baselineMedicineObservational:
  • No of women faculty

  • Rank of women faculty

Surveys:
  • Likert-scale questionnaire of quality of life (no of items not reported)

  • No of women facility increased from 234 (27.7%) to 408 (33.5%)†

  • Increase in representation at assistant, associate and full professor ranks noted†

  • Quality of life in women faculty significantly increased after the programme (P<0.05)

Helitzer et al 41 Post-test only
(survey sent in 2010 to all programme attendees since 1988)
ELAM and other multicomponent (EWIM and MidWIM)845*
ELAM=127
EWIM=306
MidWIM=252
Multiple=160
MedicineParticipants provided with a list of 16 academic skills and asked to report whether skills were acquired, improved or not improved as a result of the programme. Skills were
  • Achieving work/life balance

  • Communication

  • CV/executive summary development

  • Finance

  • Human resources

  • Interpersonal

  • Interview preparation

  • Leadership

  • Leading meetings

  • Managing difficult discussions

  • Public relations

  • Mentoring

  • Negotiation

  • Networking

  • Planning for promotion

  • Planning for next career stage

  • Most participants reported an overall gain in skills: 95% (EWIM), 93% (MidWIM) and 99% (ELAM)

  • Attainment of 11 skills significantly more common in ELAM than other programmes (all P<0.05)

  • No difference between programmes in achieving work/life balance, interview preparation, managing difficult discussion, mentoring, planning for promotion (all P>0.05)

Levine et al 32 Within group pre-test and post-test
(baseline, end of 10-month programme)
Multicomponent95Medicine, surgery, basic sciences, nursing, engineering, public health11-item questionnaire assessing self-rated skill in 11 leadership domains:
  • Developing a mission statement

  • Working in teams

  • Crucial conversations

  • Dealing with difficult behaviour

  • Public speaking

  • Understanding influencing style

  • Understanding gender-based communication differences

  • Negotiation style and skills

  • Understanding gender differences in decision-making

  • Enhancing decision-making

  • Influencing decision-making in groups

Also, asked how often they had negotiated before and during programme
  • Significant improvement in all domains (all P<0.05) aside from working in teams (possibly due to ceiling effects)

  • No increase in salary or promotion negotiation following the programme

Chang et al 35 Observational with matched comparison groups (observation 1988–2008)ELAM and other multicomponent (EWIM and MidWIM)Programme participants=3268*
Women non-participants=17 834
Male faculty=40 319
MedicineRetention
  • Programme participants recorded significantly longer retention than women non-participants and men overall (P<0.001) and at each academic rank

  • Results retained after controlling for age, tenure status, degree and department type (except for Full Professor level, where retention rates were the same between men and programme participants)

  • Type of programme not associated with retention (P>0.05)

  • Participation in more than one programme associated with longer retention (P<0.001)

Girod et al 44 Within group pre-test and post-test
(immediately before and after video presentation)
Peer education281 (163 male, 118 female)Medicine
  • General perception about bias: survey of agree/disagree statements about gender bias and stereotypes (no of items not reported)

  • Explicit bias: survey asking respondents to explicitly rate the effectiveness of men and women as leaders (no of items not reported)

  • Implicit bias: Brief Implicit Association Test, which assesses strength of association between two pairs of concepts (male/female and leader/follower) (no of items not reported)

  • Increase in perception of personal bias (P<0.01)

  • Increase in perception of bias in academic medicine (P<0.001)

  • Increase in perception of societal gender bias (P<0.05)

  • No significant change in explicit bias (P>0.05)

  • Decrease in implicit bias (P<0.002); remained after controlling for gender, age, race (P<0.01)

  • No interaction effect with age, gender, race

  • *Used overlapping samples.

  • †Statistical significance not reported.

  • ‡Matched to ELAM group by academic rank, department chair status, race/ethnicity, degree type, discipline, department, age, medical school, award ranking.

  • CV, curriculum vitae; ELAM, Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine programme; MD, mean difference.