Table 1

Details of interventions assessed in included studies

Study, countryCountryProgramme typeLength of programmeDetails
Richman et al 38 USAMulticomponent (ELAM)1 yearSenior women faculty invited to participate in the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine for women programme (ELAM), including three sessions including two week-long residential sessions and one annual meeting of the American Medical Colleges.
Programme elements include
  • Networking

  • Lectures, panel discussions, in-depth case studies, role playing and small group work

  • Individual assessment

  • Career counselling

  • Intersession assignments

McDade et al 37 USAMulticomponent (ELAM)1 yearSee above
Stewart et al 33 USAPeer educationNot specifiedCreation of a faculty committee of full professors in science and engineering (three women, four men), trained to understand contributors and consequences of gender inequality in academia. Brainstormed methods to improve hiring practices in their department over 20 hours of meetings. Dissemination via 26 workshops with their department staff (details not specified)
Jagsi et al 39 USAProfessional development grant2 yearsJunior women academics at instructor or assistant professor level and responsible for the care of children invited to apply for US$30 000 of faculty funding for 2 years, to be used for professional development
Seritan et al 42 USAMulticomponentOngoingWomen faculty invited to participate in the Society of Women in Academic Psychiatry group. Intervention included
  • Peer mentoring

  • Online collaboration on scholarly projects

  • Events with special guests

  • Liaison with interdisciplinary teams

  • Professional development regarding research resources, collaborative writing, leadership and negotiation skills

Gardiner et al 30 AustraliaPeer mentoringOngoingWomen academics at lecturer level with mixed teaching and research roles invited to be mentored by a senior faculty member.
Education workshops on mentoring provided to both mentors and mentees
Dyads decided on the frequency, length and content of their meetings (based on the suggested 1 hour per month)
Dannels et al 36 USAMulticomponent (ELAM)1 yearSee above
Files et al 34 USAPeer mentoring1 yearJunior women invited to form a peer mentoring group who met weekly to monthly. Each given 25 hours of time to participate
Senior women faculty invited to form facilitator mentor group—available to junior faculty on an as-needed basis. Also met together once a month
Whole group met once a month
Three phases:
  1. Skill acquisition and enhancement (lectures, workshops, information sharing)

  2. Skills application (writing an article)—reviewed by facilitators, available for brainstorming

  3. Development of group research protocol

Von Feldt et al 47 USACV reviewOne sessionWomen assistant professors invited to submit CV for review by a mentor of their choice (in a different department).
Mentor provided feedback regarding CV, promotion and resources
CV reviews occurred at a conference during a break
Dutta et al 31 UKPeer mentoring1 yearWomen academics at senior lecturer level or below invited to be mentored by a senior faculty member of their choice
Mentors received training in developmental mentoring
Carnes et al 45 USAPeer education2.5 hoursDelivery of a 2.5-hour bias literacy workshop in individual departments, to improve awareness of gender bias and its consequences in academia. Four elements:
  1. Generating recognition of a need to change and desire to act

  2. Providing tools to engage in new behaviour

  3. Helping envision a link between action and desired outcome

  4. Facilitate deliberate practice

Varkey et al 40 USAPeer mentoring1 yearWomen faculty at either instructor or assistant professor rank were invited to join a peer mentoring group with others at similar rank
Five groups formed, each with a facilitator experienced and trained in group development. Group mentoring sessions occurred at least once monthly
Bauman et al 46 USAMulticomponent1 yearWomen faculty invited to participate in the Women in Medicine and Health Sciences programme, including
  • Opportunities for creating networks, interacting and collaborating with one another

  • Networking events (meeting leaders, founding women’s events)

  • Internal career development (mentorship clinics, leadership clinics)

  • External career development (public speaking, salary negotiations)

  • Work/life balance education (elder care workshops)

  • Leadership and mentoring opportunities

  • Professional development workshops and lectures

Valantine et al 43 USAMulticomponentOngoingSchool of Medicine implemented Provost’s Advisory Committee on the Status of Women Faculty. Interventions included recruitment of diverse faculty, faculty awards, professional development programmes, intensive mentoring, skill building workshops, professional networking programme
Helitzer et al 41 USAMulticomponent (ELAM and others)ELAM: 1 year
Others: 3 to 4 days
ELAM: see above
Early Career Women Faculty Professional Development Programme (EWIM): professional development seminars for women at instructor, lecture or assistant professor level
Mid-Career Women Faculty Professional Development Programme (MidWIM): professional development seminars for women at associate professor or professor level
Levine et al 32 USAMulticomponent10 monthsAll women faculty invited to participate in the Leadership Programme for Women Faculty, including nine half-day workshop sessions including networking, role-play and reflective practice. Modules covered
  • Collaboration skills

  • Networking skills

  • Presentation skills

  • Influence of gender on communication styles

  • Agreement and conflict management

  • Decision-making

  • Facilitating group decision-making

  • Leadership skills

Chang et al 35 USAMulticomponent (ELAM and others)ELAM: 1 year
Others: 3 to 4 days
ELAM: see above
EWIM: see above
MidWIM: see above
Girod et al 44 USAPeer education20 minStandardised presentation by Medicine department leaders summarising research literature on implicit bias, particularly in reference to gender and leadership Includes
  • Data about the existence and effects of unconscious gender bias

  • Tips for overcoming bias in hiring processes

  • CV, curriculum vitae.