StudyIs it clear in the study what is the ‘cause’ and what is the ‘effect’ (ie, there is no confusion about which variable comes first)?Were the participants included in any comparisons similar?Were the participants included in any comparisons receiving similar treatment/care other than the exposure or intervention of interest?Was there a control group?Were there multiple measurements of the outcome both before and after the intervention/exposure?Was follow-up complete and if not, were differences between groups in terms of their follow-up adequately described and analysed?Were the outcomes of participants included in any comparisons measured in the same way?Were outcomes measured in a reliable way? Was appropriate statistical analysis used? Score
Quasi-experimental checklist (pre-test and post-test or controlled studies)
McDade et al 37 YYYNNNYNY5/9
Gardiner et al 30 YUnclearUnclearYNNYYUnclear4/9
Dannels et al 36 YNYYNNYYY6/9
Files et al 34 YYYNNYYNY6/9
Dutta et al 31 YYYNNNYYY6/9
Carnes et al 45 YYYNNNYNN4/9
Varkey et al 40 YYYNNNYNY5/9
Levine et al 32 YYYNNYYNY6/9
Chang et al 35 NNYYUnclearYYYY6/9
Girod et al 44 YYYNNYYUnclearY6/9
  • *The ‘exposure’ was considered intervention attendance/adherence.

  • †Validated tool used (with figures provided) or reliable figures like rank.

  • ‡Studies employing descriptive analysis only were considered appropriate.