Table 2

Maternal caffeine intake in pregnancy and risk of overweight/obesity at age 3 years, 5 years and 8 years

Risk of overweight and/or obesity*
All children (n=50 943)
Age 3 yearsAge 5 yearsAge 8 years
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Maternal daily caffeine intake
 Low (<50 mg)1.001.001.00
 Average (50–199 mg)1.050.99 to 1.121.000.95 to 1.060.950.86 to 1.04
 High (200–299 mg)1.171.05 to 1.301.121.02 to 1.231.110.94 to 1.31
 Very high (≥300 mg)1.441.24 to 1.671.291.13 to 1.471.291.04 to 1.61
After excluding smokers during pregnancy (n=47 036)
 Low (<50 mg)1.001.001.00
 Average (50–199 mg)1.050.99 to 1.121.000.95 to 1.060.920.84 to 1.02
 High (200–299 mg)1.171.04 to 1.321.101.00 to 1.231.080.89 to 1.29
 Very high (≥300 mg)1.501.25 to 1.791.311.12 to 1.541.301.00 to 1.70
After excluding SGA neonates (n=46 718)†
 Low (<50 mg)1.001.001.00
 Average (50–199 mg)1.060.99 to 1.121.010.95 to 1.060.960.87 to 1.05
 High (200–299 mg)1.181.05 to 1.321.141.03 to 1.251.110.94 to 1.32
 Very high (≥300 mg)1.481.28 to 1.721.321.15 to 1.511.361.09 to 1.69
  • The same population was included at each age since the outcome was defined using model-derived anthropometrics.

  • All models adjusted for maternal age, parity, parental education, prepregnancy BMI, total energy intake, nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy, paternal BMI, parental smoking during pregnancy, gestational age and gender.

  • *Overweight and/or obesity in children, according to the International Obesity Task Force definition.

  • †SGA according to Skjaerven et al. 35 

  • BMI, body mass index; SGA, small for gestational age.