Table 1

Baseline characteristics of patients with DM and with/without HHS

VariableHHSP value
NoYes
n=67 972n=1558
Age, yearn (%)n (%)<0.001
 ≤6448 497 (71.4)883 (56.7)
 65–7413 156 (19.4)404 (25.9)
 ≧756319 (9.30)271 (17.4)
 Mean±SD*57.0 (13.2)60.8 (14.8)<0.001
Sex<0.001
 Female32 463 (47.8)662 (42.5)
 Male35 509 (52.2)896 (57.5)
Underlying disease(components of the CHA2DS2-VASc score)
 CHF2643 (3.89)90 (5.78)0.001
 CVA or TIA2984 (4.39)121 (7.77)<0.001
 Vascular disease3315 (4.88)90 (5.78)0.10
 Hypertension38 497 (56.6)917 (58.9)0.08
Other underlying disease
 Hyperlipidaemia31 588 (46.5)550 (35.3)<0.001
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease9147 (13.5)247 (15.9)0.006
 Chronic kidney disease3229 (4.75)126 (8.09)<0.001
 Hyperthyroidism1531 (2.25)23 (1.48)0.04
 Sleep disorders14 099 (20.7)311 (20.0)0.45
 Gout11 237 (16.5)267 (17.1)0.52
CCI score<0.001
 055 237 (81.3)963 (61.8)
 18466 (12.5)351 (22.5)
 22310 (3.40)129 (8.28)
 3 or more1959 (2.88)115 (7.38)
Mean CHA2DS2-VASc score (SD)*2.60 (1.31)2.89 (1.53)<0.001
Mean follow-up, year (SD)*6.20 (3.49)6.64 (3.51)<0.001
  • χ2test; *t-test.

  • CHF, congestive heart failure; CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; CVA, cerebrovascular accident; DM, diabetes mellitus; HHS, hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.