Table 1

PICO for study inclusion

Participants (P)Intervention (I)Comparison (C)Outcomes (O)
InclusionMen and women of any age, ethnicity, geographic area, comorbidities or medication useCarnosine and related HCDs (beta-alanine, anserine, NAC, etc) supplementation administered in any form (intravenous, intramuscular or oral), alone (pure) or combined with other intervention/s, of any dosage and for any durationPlacebo or usual care or any pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventionsAll chronic disease risk factors and outcomes including but not limited to metabolic/glycaemic, cardiovascular and cognitive/mental health risk factors and outcomes
ExclusionStudies not in humansStudies without carnosine and/or HCD supplementationStudies with no control groupNone
Study typeRCTs and systematic reviews of RCTs
LanguageNo limit
Year of publicationNo limit
  • HCDs, histidine-containing dipeptides; NAC, N-acetylcarnosine; PICO, Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes framework; RCT, randomised controlled trial.