Table 4

OR of the occurrence of catastrophic health expenditure for each level of the socioeconomic status (SES) to the lowest group during 2011–2013 (multilevel logistic regression)

SES indicator20112013
OR (95%  CI)OR (95%  CI)
Education (ref: primary school)
 Middle school0.99 (0.78  to 1.26)1.07 (0.86 to  1.33)
 High school0.95 (0.65 to  1.38)1.15 (0.83 to  1.58)
 Vocational school and above0.94 (0.64 to  1.40)0.84 (0.59 to  1.19)
Occupation (ref: agricultural activities)
 Employed1.07 (0.75 to  1.52)1.02 (0.74 to 1.42)
 Self-employed0.75 (0.48 to  1.18)0.76 (0.54 to  1.08)
 Retired/receded1.05 (0.76 to  1.46)1.34 (1.00 to  1.78)
 Unemployed1.42 (1.13 to1.79)*1.30 (1.06 to 1.60)*
Household expenditure (ref: the lowest 20%)
 Lower 20%1.05 (0.81 to  1.37)0.73 (0.57 to 0.94)*
 Middle 20%0.71 (0.54 to 0.93)*0.59 (0.46 to 0.76)*
 Higher 20%0.55 (0.42 to 0.73)*0.53 (0.41 to 0.68)*
 Highest 20%0.42 (0.31 to 0.56)*0.43 (0.33 to 0.55)*
Urban/rural (ref: rural)
 Urban0.61 (0.47 to 0.80)*0.86 (0.68 to  1.09)
Random effect
 SD†0.4720.405
  • *P<0.05.

  • †Stata only reports SD for multilevel logistic regression.

  • ‡Variables adjusted in the model include: (1) individual level: age, sex, marital status, NCD co-occurrence and (2) community level: population size, per capita annual net income, regional location (east/middle/west part of China), availability of healthcare services and transportation condition.