Table 3

Maternal caffeine intake in pregnancy and child’s weight, weight gain velocity and BMI during childhood (n=50 943). Low caffeine intake is the reference group

Maternal daily caffeine intakeChild’s developmental period
InfancyToddlerhoodPreschool ageSchool age
3 months6 months12 months18 months3 years5 years8 years
β
(95% CI)
β
(95% CI)
β
(95% CI)
β
(95% CI)
β
(95% CI)
β
(95% CI)
β
(95% CI)
Weight (in g)
 Average (50–199 mg)14.1 (1.6 to 26.6)15.1 (1.3 to 28.8)14.9 (−5.1 to 34.9)14.8 (−9.3 to 38.9)16.1 (−16.9 to 49.0)18.2 (−24.0 to 60.5)21.5 (−35.1 to 78.1)
 High (200–299 mg)31.3 (7.5 to 55.1)35.0 (8.8 to 61.1)45.4 (7.3 to 83.5)59.0 (13.1 to 104.8)99.0 (36.3 to 161.7)148.9 (68.4 to 229.4)222.0 (114.1 to 329.8)
 Very high (≥300 mg)67.0 (32.5 to 101.6)83.2 (45.3 to 121.1)110.1 (55.2 to 165.0)135.5 (69.5 to 201.5)213.4 (123.3 to 303.6)320.0 (204.4 to 435.6)480.3 (325.5 to 635.1)
Weight gain velocity (in g/month)
 Average (50–199 mg)0.8 (−0.8 to 2.4)0.4 (−1.2 to 1.9)0.2 (−1.2 to 1.5)0.3 (−1.0 to 1.5)0.3 (−0.7 to 1.4)0.3 (−0.7 to 1.4)0.3 (−0.7 to 1.4)
 High (200–299 mg)1.(−1.4 to 4.7)1.2 (−1.7 to 4.1)2. (−0.4 to 4.7)2.3 (−0.1 to 4.7)2.1 (0 to 4.3)2.0 (0.1 to 4.0)2.2 (0 to 4.0)
 Very high (≥300 mg)6.0 (1.5 to 10.4)4.3 (0.2 to 8.5)3.8 (0.1 to 7.4)3.7 (0.3 to 7.1)3.9 (0.8 to 7.0)3.9 (1.1 to 6.8)3.9 (1.1 to 6.8)
BMI (in kg/m2)
 Average (50–199 mg)0.03 (0.01 to 0.05)0.03 (0.01 to 0.05)0.04 (0.02 to 0.06)0.04 (0.02 to 0.06)0.04 (0.02 to 0.06)0.03 (0.01 to 0.06)0.02 (−0.01 to 0.05)
 High (200–299 mg)0.07 (0.03 to 0.11)0.07 (0.03 to 0.10)0.09 (0.05 to 0.12)0.11 (0.07 to 0.15)0.14 (0.10 to 0.19)0.15 (0.11 to 0.20)0.15 (0.09 to 0.21)
 Very high (≥300 mg)0.16 (0.10 to 0.21)0.16 (0.11 to 0.21)0.17 (0.12 to 0.23)0.20 (0.14 to 0.25)0.26 (0.20 to 0.32)0.29 (0.22 to 0.36)0.31 (0.22 to 0.39)
  • Effect estimates derived from linear mixed-effect models with input of all anthropometric information from age 1 month to 8 years and adjustment for: maternal age, parity, maternal education, prepregnancy BMI, nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, paternal BMI, gestational age and birth weight. The effect estimates are adjusted mean changes of weight, weight gain velocity and BMI.

  • Infancy is defined as the period from birth to age 12 months, toddlerhood as the period from age 12 months to 3 years, preschool age as the period from age 3 years to 5 years and school age as the period from age 5 years onwards.

  • β, β coefficients; BMI, body mass index.