Table 1

Maternal caffeine intake in pregnancy and risk of excess growth in infancy (from birth to age 12 months)

Maternal daily caffeine intakeRisk of excess growth in infancy (from birth to age 12 months)*
All children (n=38 338)After excluding smokers during pregnancy (n=35 672)After excluding SGA neonates† (n=35 144)
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Low (<50 mg)
Average (50–199 mg)1.151.09 to to to 1.22
High (200–299 mg)1.301.16 to 1.451.321.17 to 1.491.251.11 to 1.41
Very high (≥300 mg)1.661.42 to 1.931.581.30 to 1.911.671.41 to 1.97
  • All models adjusted for maternal age, parity, parental education, prepregnancy BMI, total energy intake, nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy, paternal BMI, parental smoking during pregnancy, gestational age and gender.

  • *Excess growth is defined as a WHO weight-for-age z-score difference >0.67 between birth and age 12 months.

  • †SGA according to Skjaerven et al. 35 

  • BMI, body mass index; SGA, small for gestational age.