Table 2

Prevalence of DSM-IV diagnoses in the 19Up study

Total prevalence
% (95% CI)
Prevalence males
% (95% CI)
Prevalence females
% (95% CI)
P values males versus femalesPrevalence NU2
% (95% CI)
Prevalence NU3
% (95% CI)
P values NU2 versus NU3
Affective disorders
 MDD17.5%
(16.1 to 19.0)
13.8%
(11.9 to 15.9)
20.3%
(18.3 to 22.3)
1.06E-05 15.2%
(12.6 to 18.2)
18.3%
(16.6 to 20.0)
0.078
 Social anxiety17.5%
(16.1 to 19.0)
13.2%
(11.3 to 15.3)
20.7%
(18.8 to 22.8)
3.2E-07 16.2%
(13.6 to 19.3)
17.9%
(16.3 to 19.7)
0.35
 Panic disorder (with agoraphobia)0.9%
(0.57 to 1.3)
0.3%
(0.1 to  0.8)
1.3%
(0.8 to 2.0)
5.9E-3*†1.1%
(0.5 to 2.3)
0.8%
(0.5 to 1.3)
0.72
 Panic disorder (without agoraphobia)1.5%
(1.1 to 2.1)
0.9%
(0.4 to 1.6)
2.0%
(1.4 to 2.8)
0.023†1.7%
(0.9 to 3.0)
1.5%
(1.0 to 2.1)
0.88
  Panic attack14.3%
(13.0 to 15.7)
9.2%
(7.6 to  11.0)
18.1%
(16.3 to 20.1)
4.5E-11 15.6%
(13.0  to 18.7)
13.9%
(12.5 to 15.5)
0.29
 Manic episode0.5%
(0.3 to 0.9)
0.7%
(0.3 to 1.4)
0.4%
(0.2 to 0.9)
0.390.6%
(0.2 to 1.6)
0.5%
(0.2 to 0.9)
0.93*
Substance use
 Lifetime use of any drug‡57.8%
(56.0 to 59.7)
63.2%
(60.4 to 66.0)
53.9%
(51.4 to 56.4)
1.0E-06 62.3%
(58.4 to 65.9)
56.5%
(54.3 to 58.6)
9.4E-3†
 Cannabis abuse11.6%
(10.5 to 12.9
17.0%
(14.9 to 19.3)
7.7%
(6.44 to 9.11)
5.6E-14 15.3%
(12.7 to 18.4)
10.4%
(9.2 to 11.8)
7.5E-4
 Cannabis dependence6.8%
(5.9 to 7.8)
9.8%
(8.2 to 11.7)
4.6%
(3.7 to 5.8)
1.1E-07 10.7%
(8.5  to 13.3)
5.6%
(4.7 to 6.7)
8.9E-06
 Alcohol abuse33.8%
(32.1 to 35.6)
40.2%
(37.4 to 43.1)
29.2%
(27.0 to 31.5)
2.1E-09 36.7%
(33.0 to 40.5)
32.9%
(30.9 to 35)
0.081
 Alcohol dependence28.0%
(26.3 to 29.7)
35.4%
(32.7  to 38.2)
22.6%
(20.6 to 24.7)
1.66E-13 32.8%
(29.2 to 36.5)
26.5%
(24.6 to 28.4)
0.0019
Core diagnostic criteria
 Depression25.8%
(24.2 to 27.5)
20.3%
(18.1  to 22.8)
29.8%
(27.6 to 32.1)
2.7E-08 25.1%
(21.9  to 28.6)
26%
(24.2 to 27.9)
0.68
 Hypomania6.3%
(5.5 to 7.3)
6.3%
(5.0 to 7.8)
6.4%
(5.3 to 7.7)
0.975.7%
(4.1 to 7.8)
6.5%
(5.5 to 7.7)
0.52
 Mania2.0%
(1.5 to 2.6)
2.1%
(1.4 to 3.1)
2.0%
(1.4 to 2.8)
11.1%
(0.5 to 2.3)
2.3%
(1.7 to 3.1)
0.06
 N2773117016036652151
  • Significant P values after multiple testing correction are highlighted in bold.  Analyses performed using a χ2 test (1 degree of freedom) unless stated.  Cells report prevalence % (95% CI).

  • *Fisher’s exact test used.

  • †Would not survive multiple testing correction of 0.05/22=0.0022.

  • ‡Illicit drug or non-medical use of prescription drug. Participants are asked specifically about cocaine, amphetamine-type stimulants, inhalants, sedatives or sleeping pills, hallucinogens, opioids, party drugs (ecstasy, ketamine, GHB), over-the-counter/prescription pain killers and analgesics for non-medical purposes, over-the-counter/prescription stimulants for non-medical purposes, or other.

  • 19Up, Nineteen and Up study; MDD, major depressive disorder.