Table 3

Overview of exercise interventions

Reference, countryExercise intervention
ExerciseModalityStudy durationSession duration/frequency/intensityAdditionalControl
Aronov et al,39 RussiaModerate intensity physical training (unknown setting).Cycle ergometer.12 months45–60 min/three sessions per week/50%–60% of the performed capacity by bicycle ergometry.None specified.Standard medical therapy.
Belardinelli et al,32 ItalyModerate intensity exercise (supervised in hospital gym).Cycle ergometer.6 months53 min/three sessions per week/60% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak).None specified.Recommended to perform basic daily mild physical activities but to avoid any physical training.
Briffa et al,40 AustraliaAerobic circuit training (supervised in hospital).Aerobic circuit training.6 weeks60–90 min/three sessions per week/not specified.Education and psychosocial counselling.Education, pharmacotherapy and lifestyle counselling.
Giallauria et al,33 ItalyModerate intensity exercise (supervised in centre).Cycle ergometer.6 months40 min/three sessions per week/60%–70% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak).None specified.Generic instructions on maintaining physical activity and a correct lifestyle.
Hambrecht et al,30 GermanyModerate intensity exercise (supervised in hospital and unsupervised at home).Cycle ergometer.12 months10 min, 42 sessions per week (hospital), 20 min, seven sessions per week (home) plus 60 min group training, one session per week/70% of symptom-limited max HR.None specified.Standard medical therapy.
Higgins et al,41 AustraliaModerate intensity walking programme (unsupervised at home).Walking.Not specifiedNot specified/not specified/not specified.Psychological plus education.Psychological support, education, counselling and guidance.
Houle et al,42 CanadaPedometer-based walking programme (unsupervised at home).Walking.12 monthsNot specified/not specified/not specified.Education plus sociocognitive.Sociocognitive support and advice regarding physical activity, diet and medication.
Kovoor et al,43 AustraliaStandard cardiac rehabilitation programme (unknown setting).Not specified.5 weeksNot specified/2–4 sessions per week/not specified.Education and counselling.Encouraged to exercise at home and return to normal activities.
Maddison et al,44 New ZealandAutomated package of text messages to increase exercise behaviour (unsupervised at home).Moderate to vigourous aerobic exercise, for example, walking and household chores.24 weeksMinimum of 30 min/at least five sessions per week/not specified.Optional access to other CR service or support.Behaviour change therapy, encouragement to be physically active and advice to attend a cardiac club.
Maroto Montero et al,34 SpainIndividualised physical training (supervised in hospital gym).Physiotherapy and aerobic training on mats or a cycle ergometer.3 months60 min/three sessions per week/75%–85% max HR.Psychological support, education plus return to work counselling.Psychological support, education plus return to work counselling.
Munk et al,35 NorwayModerate/high intensity interval training (supervised in centre).Cycle ergometer or running.6 months60 min/three sessions per week/60%–70% and 80%–90% max HR.Spine and abdominal resistance training.Usual care, including drug therapy.
Mutwalli et al,45 Saudi ArabiaModerate intensity walking programme (unsupervised at home).Walking.6 months30 min/seven sessions per week/not specified.Education.Education, standard hospital care
Oerkild et al,36 DenmarkModerate intensity exercise (unsupervised at home).Individualised.12 months30 min/six sessions per week/11–13 on the Borg Scale.Risk factor management.Usual care, no exercise education or dietary counselling.
Reid et al,46 CanadaInternet-based physical activity plan and motivational tool to increase physical activity (unsupervised at home).Not specified.20 weeksNot specified/not specified/not specified.None specified.Online education, physical activity guidance and an education booklet.
Santaularia et al,29 SpainOutpatient exercise training programme (supervised in hospital).Cycle ergometer.10 weeks60 min/three sessions per week/75%–90% max HR (RPE 11–15 on Borg Scale)Resistance training, education and risk factor management.Standard care, risk factor management, guidance on physical activity and adherence to medication.
Seki et al,47 JapanModerate intensity aerobic exercise (supervised in centre and unsupervised at home).Walking, cycle ergometer and jogging.6 months50–110 min, one session per week (centre), ≥30 min, two sessions per week (home)/12–13 on the standard Borg Scale.Education.Education and outpatient follow-up with physician.
Toobert et al,48 USAWalking or aerobics (supervised in centre and unsupervised at home).Walking or aerobics.24 months60 min, seven sessions per week (centre), 60 min, three sessions per week (home)/individually prescribed.Education and psychological support.Cooking classes, stress management and education.
Vestfold Heartcare Study Group,37 NorwayDynamic endurance physical activity (supervised, group sessions in centre).Dynamic endurance training.15 weeks55 min/two sessions per week/RPE 11–13 on the Borg Scale, increased to 13–15 after 6 weeks.Education and psychological support.Education and psychological support.
Wang et al,49 ChinaNot specified.Not specified.Not specifiedNot specified/not specified/not specified.Education.Education.
West et al,31 UKNot specified, multicentre (supervised in centre).Varied by centre (exercise equipment in physiotherapy gyms).6–8 weeksAveraged 20 hours over 6–8 weeks/1–2 sessions per week/not specified.Education plus psychological support.Education plus psychological support.
Yu et al,50 ChinaAmbulatory and aerobic cardiovascular training (supervised in hospital and centre, unsupervised at home).Walking, treadmill, cycle ergometry, rowing, stepper, arm ergometry and dumbbell8 1/2 months2 hours/two sessions per week (centre), not specified (home)/65%–85% of maximal aerobic capacity (VO2peak).Resistance training and education.Conventional medical therapy and education.
Zwisler et al,38 DenmarkIntensive CR programme (supervised in centre).Not specified.6 weeksNot specified/two sessions per week/not specified.Education and psychosocial support.Education and psychosocial support.
  • CR, cardiac rehabilitation; HR, heart rate; RPE, rating of perceived exertion; VO2 Peak, peak oxygen uptake.