Table 3

Time changes in the dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods (% or total energy intake) according to sociodemographic variables

Variables2007–20082009–20102011–2012P value for linear trend
Age group
 Less than high school58.058.660.40.1632
 High school58.460.261.10.0122
Family income-to-poverty ratio†
 Non-Hispanic white57.959.460.4*0.0749
 Non-Hispanic black61.661.163.60.1512
 Other Hispanic51.455.353.10.2563
 Other Race47.450.551.00.4002
  • US population aged ≥2 years (NHANES  2007–2012).

  • *P<0.05 Wald test for difference in consumption between the first (2007–2008) and the last (2011–2012) cycles.

  • †Income-to-poverty ratios represent the ratio of family or unrelated individual income to their appropriate poverty threshold. Categories based on SNAP eligibility.38

  • NHANES, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; SNAP, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.