Table 3

Time changes in the dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods (% or total energy intake) according to sociodemographic variables

Variables2007–20082009–20102011–2012P value for linear trend
Gender
 Male57.358.859.70.0368
 Female57.958.959.60.1834
Age group
 2–963.463.965.40.4518
 10–1964.967.068.30.0128
 20–3958.059.259.90.3529
 40–5954.255.056.30.3821
 ≥6052.154.254.00.1800
Education
 Less than high school58.058.660.40.1632
 High school58.460.261.10.0122
 College54.455.956.00.4667
Family income-to-poverty ratio†
 ≤1.3060.660.962.60.1910
 1.31–3.5057.759.560.10.0380
 >3.5056.157.457.50.2310
Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white57.959.460.4*0.0749
 Non-Hispanic black61.661.163.60.1512
 Mexican-American56.458.458.30.0501
 Other Hispanic51.455.353.10.2563
 Other Race47.450.551.00.4002
Total57.658.959.70.038
  • US population aged ≥2 years (NHANES  2007–2012).

  • *P<0.05 Wald test for difference in consumption between the first (2007–2008) and the last (2011–2012) cycles.

  • †Income-to-poverty ratios represent the ratio of family or unrelated individual income to their appropriate poverty threshold. Categories based on SNAP eligibility.38

  • NHANES, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; SNAP, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.