Table 1

Characteristics of the cohort

AllWhite BritishPakistaniOther
No anomalyAnomalyNo anomalyAnomalyNo anomalyAnomalyNo anomalyAnomaly
Ethnic origin10 768 (93.9%)706 (6.2%)4288 (94.6%)245 (5.4%)4804 (92.8%)371 (7.2%)1653 (94.8%)90 (5.2%)
Economic deprivation
 Economically deprived6147 (57.1%)444 (62.9%)2072 (48.3%)116 (47.4%)3315 (69.0%280 (75.5%)758 (45.9%)48 (53.3%)
 Not economically deprived4166 (38.7%)247 (35.0%)2034 (47.4%)122 (49.8%)1340 (27.9)%85 (22.9%)792 (47.9%)40 (44.4%)
 Missing455 (4.2%)15 (2.1%)182 (4.2%)7 (2.9%)149 (3.1%)6 (1.6%)103 (6.2%)2 (2.2%)
Age of mother, years
 20–348716 (80.9%)554 (78.5%)3231 (75.4%)180 (73.5%)4099 (85.3%)312 (84.1%)1366 (82.6%)62 (68.9%)
 <20776 (7.2%)51 (7.2%)536 (12.5%)29 (11.8%)148 (3.1%)15 (4.0%)92 (5.6%)7 (7.8%)
 >341276 (11.9%)101 (14.3%)521 (12.2%)36 (14.7%)557 (11.6)44 (11.9%)195 (11.8%)21 (23.3%)
Consanguinity
 Non-consanguineous7850 (72.9%)424 (60.1%)4284 (99.8%)224 (99.6%)2008 (41.8%)102 (27.5%)1538 (93.0%)78 (86.7%)
 First cousin1834 (17.0%)192 (27.2%)1 (<1%)1 (<1%)1753 (36.5%)183 (49.3%)79 (4.8%)8 (8.9%)
 Second cousin637 (5.9%)55 (7.8%)00611 (12.7%)51 (13.8%)25 (1.5%)4 (4.4%)
 Other blood447 (4.2%)35 (5.0%)3 (<1%)0432 (9.0%)35 (9.4%)11 (0.7%)0
Maternal education
 Lower education2894 (26.9%)217 (30.7%1228 (28.6%)74 (30.2%)1374 (28.6%)123 (33.2%)286 (17.3%)20 (22.2%)
 Higher education7617 (70.7%)470 (66.6%)3014 (70.3%)167 (68.2%)3357 (69.9%)243 (65.5%)1223 (74.6%)60 (66.7%)
Healthcare use
 Average number of primary care consultations per year5.216.824.215.496.207.894.916.01
 Average number of admissions per year0.110.500.110.320.120.600.080.60