Table 2

Dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods according to sociodemographic variables

Variables% of energy intake from ultra-processed foods
Crude mean (95% CI)Adjusted mean†  (95% CI)
Gender
 Male58.4 (57.6 to 59.1)58.3 (57.6 to 59.0)
 Female58.6 (57.9 to 59.4)58.8 (58.1 to 59.5)
Age group
 2–965.2 (64.3 to 66.1)65.9 (65.0 to 66.8)
 10–1966.7 (65.9 to 67.5)66.8 (65.9 to 67.7)
 20–3959.0 (58.0 to 60.1)59.5 (58.7 to 60.3)
 40–5955.2 (54.0 to 56.3)55.2 (54.1 to 56.4)
 ≥6053.5 (52.5 to 54.4)*52.8 (51.9 to 53.7)*
Education‡
 Less than high school59.0 (57.9 to 60.0)59.5 (58.4 to 60.6)
 High school59.9 (59.2 to 60.6)59.7 (59.1 to 60.3)
 College or higher55.4 (54.2 to 56.8)*55.9(54.6 to 57.2)*
Family income-to-poverty ratio§
 ≤1.3061.1 (60.0 to 62.2)59.6 (58.6 to 60.7)
 1.31–1.5058.9 (57.9 to 59.9)58.7 (57.8 to 59.7)
 >1.5056.8(55.9 to 57.8)*57.7 (56.9 to 58.6)*
Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white59.2 (58.4 to 60.1)60.2 (59.4 to 60.9)
 Non-Hispanic black62.1 (61.1 to 63.3)60.6 (59.7 to 61.5)
 Mexican-American57.7 (56.7 to 58.8)54.8 (53.2 to 56.3)
 Other Hispanic53.3 (51.5 to 55.1)52.0 (50.3 to 53.7)
 Other49.9 (47.7 to 52.2)49.6 (47.3 to 51.8)*
  • US population aged ≥2 years (NHANES  2007–2012).

  • *P for linear trend <0.05.

  • †Adjusted for all the other variables in the table.

  • ‡For individuals under 25 years, the education of the household head was considered.

  • §Income-to-poverty ratios represent the ratio of family or unrelated individual income to their appropriate poverty threshold. Categories based on SNAP eligibility.38

  • NHANES, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; SNAP, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.