Table 1

Main characteristics of the study group by GMA health risk grades

Low riskModerate riskHigh riskVery high riskTotal
Patients (n)41 809121 91876 23724 866264 830
Age (years)*60.8±11.869.4±11.875.1±10.977.4±10.170.5±12.5
Women (%)*36.036.235.935.336.0
Morbidity
 No of chronic comorbidities*2.9±1.15.2±1.47.0±1.68.4±1.75.6±2.1
 Diabetes (%)*5.222.739.452.627.5
 Heart failure (%)*0.25.230.763.717.2
 Hypertension (%)*24.060.481.188.963.3
 Renal failure (%)*0.35.823.447.813.9
 Dementia (%)*0.32.67.813.64.7
 Cirrhosis (%)0.51.63.04.82.1
 Depression (%)8.820.128.634.222.1
 Stroke (%)*0.55.919.231.811.3
 Ischaemic coronary disease (%)*0.99.028.042.716.4
 Malignancy (%)*4.217.032.140.921.6
 Locomotor system (%)*29.356.367.972.056.8
 Osteoporosis (%)*3.910.014.317.911.0
 Arthrosis (%)*9.832.847.651.035.1
2015 eventsn (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
 Mortality*391 (0.9)3213 (2.6)6792 (8.9)5955 (23.9)16 351 (6.2)
 Patients with hospitalisations (all causes)*1785 (4.3)12 451 (10.2)19 417 (25.5)12 496 (50.3)46 149 (17.4)
 Patients with hospitalisations (COPD related)*404 (1.0)2769 (2.3)4697 (6.2)3600 (14.5)11 470 (4.3)
 Patients with multiple hospitalisations (all causes)*366 (0.9)3026 (2.5)6687 (8.8)6035 (24. 0)16 114 (6.1)
 Patients with multiple hospitalisations (COPD related)*71 (0.2)524 (0.4)1169 (1.5)1210 (4.9)2974 (1.1)
 Users with high healthcare costs*1119 (2.7)10 064 (8.3)17 333 (22.7)11 609 (46.7)40 125 (15.2)
  • Age and number of chronic comorbidities expressed as mean±SD; gender and morbidities are expressed as percentages; comparisons among risk grades were done using analysis of variance for continuous variables and χ2 test for binary and nominal variables.

  • *P<0.01.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GMA, Adjusted Morbidity Groups.