Table 5

OR and 95% CIs for emergency caesarean section among parous women in the participating hospitals (n=24 210)

Crude OR
(95% CI)
Model 1*
OR (95% CI)
Model 2†
OR (95% CI)
Model 3‡
OR (95% CI)
Hospitals
 Hospital 1RefRefRefRef
 Hospital 21.50 (1.23 to 1.83)1.48 (1.19 to 1.84)1.38 (1.12 to 1.70)1.30 (1.04 to 1.63)
 Hospital 31.75 (1.47 to 2.08)1.80 (1.48 to 2.20)1.50 (1.25 to 1.80)1.53 (1.25 to 1.89)
 Hospital 41.37 (1.13 to 1.67)1.39 (1.12 to 1.72)0.87 (0.70 to 1.09)0.81 (0.64 to 1.04)
 Hospital 52.56 (211 to 3.11)2.61 (2.11 to 3.23)1.89 (1.52 to 2.34)1.70 (1.34 to 2.15)
 Hospital 62.99 (2.44 to 3.65)2.28 (1.78 to 2.93)2.66 (2.12 to 3.34)1.74 (1.32 to 2.31)
Maternal age (years)1.05 (1.04 to 1.06)1.05 (1.04 to 1.06)1.07 (1.05 to 1.08)
Place of residence
 Urban/ruralRefRefRef
 Camp1.14 (1.01 to 1.29)1.24 (1.07 to 1.43)1.19 (1.02 to 1.39)
Education (years)
 ≤9RefRefRef
 10 to 120.60 (0.53 to 0.68)0.86 (0.74 to 1.01)0.79 (0.67 to 0.93)
 ≥130.52 (0.45 to 0.60)0.73 (0.61 to 0.86)0.62 (0.52 to 0.75)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 ≤24.9RefRefRef
 25–29.91.25 (1.04 to 1.49)1.27 (1.05 to 1.53)1.30 (1.07 to 1.58)
 ≥301.38 (1.15 to 1.65)1.23 (1.02 to 1.49)1.18 (0.97 to 1.43)
Children alive (no)1.02 (1.00 to 1.05)1.03 (1.00 to 1.05)0.90 (0.87 to 0.94)
Previous caesarean section
 0RefRefRef
 16.65 (5.98 to 7.39)6.85 (6.12 to 7.65)6.26 (5.57 to 7.05)
Antenatal visits (no)1.07 (1.05 to 1.09)1.05 (1.03 to 1.07)1.06 (1.04 to 1.08)
In vitro fertilisation treatment
 NoRefRefRef
 Yes2.69 (1.50 to 4.81)2.13 (1.09 to 4.16)1.98 (0.98 to 3.99)
Hypertensive disorder
 No/unknownRefRefRef
 Yes2.98 (2.48 to 3.57)3.18 (2.60 to 3.89)3.02 (2.45 to 3.73)
Induction of labour
 No/unknownRefRefRef
 Yes0.91 (0.78 to 1.05)0.97 (0.83 to 1.14)0.95 (0.80 to 1.12)
  • *Adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics (maternal age, place of residence, education and body mass index).

  • †Adjusted for obstetric characteristics (children alive, previous caesarean section, antenatal visits, in vitro fertilisation treatment, hypertensive disorder and induction of labour).

  • ‡Adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics (age, place of residence, education, body mass index) and obstetric characteristics (children alive, previous caesarean section, antenatal visits, in vitro fertilisation treatment, hypertensive disorder and induction of labour).