Table 1

Descriptions of the studies included in the meta-analysis of prevalence of frailty and prefrailty  

Authors and year of publicationCountryWorld Bank region classificationWorld Bank income classificationAge (years)Frailty assessment methodEffective samplePrevalence (%)
FrailtyPrefrailty
Tribess et al, 201245 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype*62219.949.8
Reis Júnior et al, 201446 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype*28623.858.7
Pegorari and Tavares, 201447 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype*95812.854.5
Santos et al, 201548 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype*13616.961.8
Closs et al, 201649 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype*52121.551.1
Mello et al, 201750 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype*13712.461.3
Sousa et al, 201251 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*39117.160.1
Amaral et al, 201352 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*29518.655.3
Moreira and Lourenço, 201353 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*7549.547.5
Neri et al, 201354 (Belem)BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*72010.848.2
Neri et al, 201354 (Parnaiba)BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*4319.755.5
Neri et al, 201354 (Campina Grande)BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*3958.951.4
Neri et al, 201354 (Pocos de Caldas)BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*3889.353.4
Neri et al, 201354 (Ermelino Matarazzo)BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*3848.154.9
Neri et al, 201354 (Campinas)BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*8987.752.2
Neri et al, 201354 (Ivoti)BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*1978.647.7
Vieira et al, 201355 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*6018.746.3
Ricci et al, 201456 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*7619.748.0
Silveira et al, 201557 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*5411.146.2
Calado et al, 2 01658 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*3859.149.6
Augusti et al, 201759 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*30621.571.6
Ferriolli et al, 201760 (Recife)BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*55612.166.9
Ferriolli et al, 201760 (Juiz de Fora)BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*41215.563.1
Ferriolli et al, 201760 (Fortaleza)BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*48110.463.6
Ocampo-Chaparro et al, 201361 ColombiaLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype*31412.771.3
Curcio et al, 201462 ColombiaLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype*187812.253.0
Samper-Ternent et al, 201663 ColombiaLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype *14429.452.4
Sánchez-García et al, 201764 MexicoLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype*125211.250.3
Moreno-Tamayo et al, 201765 MexicoLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥70Fried phenotype*65711.951.9
Chen et al, 201566 ChinaEast Asia and PacificUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype*60412.756.5
Wu et al, 201767 ChinaEast Asia and PacificUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype*52906.351.3
Dong et al, 201768 ChinaEast Asia and PacificUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype*11883.945.9
Wang et al, 201569 ChinaEast Asia and PacificUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*31614.249.1
Badrasawi et al, 201770 MalaysiaEast Asia and PacificUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype*4738.961.7
Kashikar and Nagarkar, 201632 IndiaSouth AsiaLower middle income≥65Fried phenotype*25026.063.6
Gurina et al, 201171 RussiaEurope and Central AsiaUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype*61121.163.0
Alvarado et al, 200833 (SABE wave 1)BarbadosLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype†144626.754.4
Alvarado et al, 200833 (SABE wave 1)BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype†187940.648.8
Alvarado et al, 200833 (SABE wave 1)ChileLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype†122042.651.4
Alvarado et al, 200833 (SABE wave 1)CubaLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype†172639.051.6
Alvarado et al, 200833 (SABE wave 1)MexicoLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype†106339.549.0
Aguilar-Navarro et al, 201572 (MHAS wave 1)MexicoLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype†564437.251.3
Avila-Funes et al, 201673 MexicoLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥70Fried phenotype†92714.137.3
Sánchez-García et al, 201474 MexicoLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype‡193315.733.3
Akin et al, 201575 (KEHES)TurkeyEurope and Central AsiaUpper middle income≥60Fried phenotype‡84827.834.8
Zhu et al, 201676 ChinaEast Asia and PacificUpper middle income≥70Fried phenotype‡147812.042.9
Jotheeswaran et al, 201531 China (urban)East Asia and PacificUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype‡9897.8
Jotheeswaran et al, 201531 China (rural)East Asia and PacificUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype‡10028.7
Jotheeswaran et al, 201531 Cuba (urban)Latin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype‡263721.0
Jotheeswaran et al, 201531 Dominican Republic (urban)Latin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype‡170634.6
Jotheeswaran et al, 201531 India (urban)South AsiaLower middle income≥65Fried phenotype‡74811.4
Jotheeswaran et al, 201531 Mexico (urban)Latin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype‡90910.1
Jotheeswaran et al, 201531 Mexico (rural)Latin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype‡9338.5
Jotheeswaran et al, 201531 Peru (urban)Latin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype‡124525.9
Jotheeswaran et al, 201531 Peru (rural)Latin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype‡50717.2
Jotheeswaran et al, 201531 Venezuela (urban)Latin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65Fried phenotype‡169711.0
Fhon et al, 201277 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60EFS24039.224.6
Agreli et al, 201378 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60EFS10330.122.3
Duarte et al, 201379 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60EFS16639.221.7
Del Brutto et al, 201680 EcuadorLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60EFS29831.222.0
Fabrício-Wehbe et al, 200981 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65EFS13731.420.4
Carneiro et al, 201682 BrazilLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥65EFS51141.3
Woo et al, 201542 ChinaEast Asia and PacificUpper middle income≥65Frailty index6320 (urban)
978 (rural)
17.0
5.2

Sathasivam et al, 201543 MalaysiaEast Asia and PacificUpper middle income≥60Frailty index7895.767.7
Pérez-Zepeda et al, 201644 MexicoLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Frailty index710845.2
Galbán et al, 200983 CubaLatin America and the CaribbeanUpper middle income≥60Cuban frailty criteria54151.4
Boulos et al, 201684 LebanonMiddle East and North AfricaUpper middle income≥65SOF frailty index112036.430.4
Gray et al, 201730 TanzaniaSub-Saharan AfricaLow income≥70B-FIT9414.613.4
  • *Fried Phenotype with five criteria—weakness and slowness assessed using objective tests.

  • †Fried Phenotype with five criteria—weakness and slowness assessed using self-reported questions (subjective).

  • ‡Fried phenotype with four criteria.

  • B-FIT, Brief Frailty Instrument for Tanzania; EFS, Edmonton Frail Scale; KEHES, Kayseri Elderly Health Study; MHAS, Mexican Health and Aging Study; SABE-Health, Wellbeing and Ageing Study; SOF, Study of Osteoporotic Fractures frailty index.