Table 2

Univariable and multivariable meta-regression results

CharacteristicUnivariable analysisMultivariable analysis
No of estimatesβ (95% CI)P valueAdjusted R2 (%)No of estimatesβ (95% CI)P valueAdjusted R2 (%)
Mean age, years (per unit increase)410.003 (−0.012 to 0.018)0.665−2.48410.003 (−0.009 to 0.017)0.57058.41
Percentage of women in the sample (per unit increase)530.002 (− 0.001 to 0.007)0.1900.9641−0.000 (−0.004 to 0.004)0.962
Study quality assessment score (per unit increase)53−0.007 (−0.046 to 0.031)0.697−1.77410.015 (−0.020 to 0.051)0.379
World Bank region classification (Reference: Latin America and the Caribbean) 3819.9629
East Asia and Pacific11−0.138 (−0.212 to −0.063)0.0018−0.105 (−0.177 to −0.033)0.005
Europe and Central Asia20.014 (−0.144 to 0.173)0.85620.068 (−0.051 to 0.189)0.252
South Asia2−0.051 (−0.217 to −0.114)0.53520.001 (−0.129 to 0.132)0.982
Frailty assessment method (Reference: frailty phenotype with five criteria, weakness and slowness assessed using objective tests)2347.1120
EFS60.222 (0.124 to 0.319)0.00060.215 (0.120 to 0.309)0.000
Frailty index40.053 (−0.041 to 0.149)0.26420.171 (0.056 to 0.286)0.005
Fried phenotype with four criteria130.026 (−0.037, to 0.089)0.410120.032 (−0.035 to 0.100)0.342
Fried phenotype with five criteria, weakness and slowness assessed using self-reported questions (subjective)70.206 (0.129 to 0.283)0.00010.223 (0.065 to 0.382)0.007
  • EFS, Edmonton Frail Scale.