Table 1

Intervention inclusion and exclusion list based on 12 common applications and a visual framework (Labrique et al)25

Common mHealth and ICT applicationsExamples of mobile phone functionsDecision
Client education and behaviour-change communication
  • SMS

  • MMS

  • IVR

  • Voice communication/audio clips

  • Video clips

  • Images

Included
Sensors and point-of-care diagnostics
  • Mobile phone camera

  • Tethered accessory sensors, devices

  • Built-in accelerometer

  • SMS

  • Voice communication

  • Digital forms

Included if community members/patients participate in the diagnostic process.
Registries and vital events tracking
  • SMS

  • Voice communication

  • Digital forms

Included if community members/patients are responsible for data collection.
Electronic health records
  • SMS

  • Digital forms

  • Mobile web

Excluded
Data collection and reportingDigital forms
  • Voice communication

Excluded
Electronic decision support (information, protocols, algorithms, checklists)
  • Mobile web (WAP/GPRS)

  • Stored information ‘apps’

  • IVR

Excluded
Provider-to-provider communication (user groups, consultation)
  • SMS

  • MMS

  • Mobile phone camera

Excluded
Provider work planning and scheduling
Provider training and education
Interactive electronic client lists
  • SMS alerts

  • Mobile phone calendar

Included only if outcomes are related to community members/patients perceptions of maternal and reproductive health services as a consequence of an mHealth-based provider training and education intervention.
Human resource management
  • MMS

  • IVR

  • Voice communication

  • Audio or video clips, images

  • Web-based performance dashboards

  • GPS

  • Voice communication

  • SMS

Excluded
Supply chain management
  • Web-based supply dashboards

  • GPS

  • Digital forms

  • SMS

Excluded
Financial transactions and incentives
  • Mobile money transfers and banking services

  • Transfer of airtime minutes

Included when patients/community members directly receive incentives as part of the mHealth intervention and maternal and reproductive health outcomes are reported.
  • GPRS, general packet radio service; GPS, global positioning service; ICT, information communication technology; IVR, interactive voice response; mHealth, mobile health; MMS, multimedia messaging service; SMS, short message service; WAP, wireless application protocol.