Table 2

Maternal and infant characteristics by treatment of diabetes in the first trimester†

Human insulin only, 
n (%)
Insulin analogue only, 
n (%)
Human insulin and insulin analogue, 
n (%)
N870397394
Maternal characteristics
 Maternal age, mean (SD)29.3±5.229.8±5.129.1±5.4
 Maternal age, >35 years150 (17.2)67 (16.9)67 (17.0)
 Multiparous515 (59.2)216 (54.4)211 (53.6)
 Planned pregnancy208 (23.9)196 (49.4)*139 (35.3)
 Type 1 diabetes791 (90.9)379 (95.5)359 (91.1)
 Duration of diabetes, >10 years405 (46.6)255 (64.2)*188 (47.7)
 Chronic hypertension42 (4.8)25 (6.3)15 (3.8)
 HbA1c first trimester
  ≤43 mmol/mol (≤6.1%)109 (12.5)54 (13.6)66 (16.8)
  44–53 mmol/mol (6.2%–7.0%)120 (13.8)117 (29.5)*66 (16.8)
  54–67 mmol/mol (7.1%–8.3%)134 (15.4)86 (21.7)94 (23.9)
  >67 mmol/mol (>8.3%)100 (11.8)54 (13.6)47 (11.9)
  Unknown407 (46.8)86 (21.7)121 (30.7)
Infant characteristics
 Birth year
  ≤2002363 (41.7)13 (3.3)25 (6.4)
  2003–2007357 (41.0)126 (31.7)*121 (30.7)*
  2008–2012150 (17.3)258 (65.0)*248 (62.9)*
 Fetal outcome
  Live birth855 (98.3)380 (95.7)380 (96.4)
  Stillbirth11 (1.3)10 (2.5)7 (1.8)
  Spontaneous abortion1 (0.1)6 (1.5)*5 (1.3)*
  Termination3 (0.3)1 (0.3)2 (0.5)
 Male sex456 (52.4)200 (50.4)208 (52.8)
 Preterm delivery‡, <37 weeks249 (29.2)122 (32.7)80 (21.1)*
 Large for gestation‡413 (48.7)197 (53.4)184 (48.6)
 Death in the first week‡6 (0.8)1 (0.3)0
  • The range of gestational age is 6–42 weeks.

  • *P<0.05.

  • †Reference group for comparison was fetuses exposed to human insulin only in the first trimester.

  • ‡Among live birth.

  • HbA1c, haemoglobin A1c.