Table 5

Prevalence* of non-chromosomal congenital anomaly subgroups by treatment of diabetes in the first trimester

Human insulin only
N=870
Insulin analogues only
N=397
Human insulin and insulin analogue N=394
EUROCAT subgroupsn (per 1000)n (per 1000)n (per 1000)
Nervous system11 (12.6)2 (5.0)2 (5.1)
Ear, face and neck1 (1.1)00
Congenital heart defects35 (40.2)3 (7.6)14 (35.5)
 Severe congenital heart defects2 (2.3)04 (10.2)
 Transposition of great vessels002 (5.1)
 Single ventricle1 (1.1)00
 Ventricular septal defect20 (23.0)1 (2.5)9 (22.8)
 Atrial septal defect12 (13.8)2 (5.0)2 (5.1)
 Tetralogy of Fallot001 (2.5)
 PDA as only congenital heart defects in term infants (GA +37 weeks)1 (1.1)01 (2.5)
Respiratory1 (1.1)1 (2.5)1 (2.5)
Orofacial clefts1 (1.1)2 (5.0)0
Digestive system5 (5.7)02 (5.1)
Urinary10 (11.5)3 (7.6)1 (2.5)
Genital3 (3.4)2 (5.0)2 (5.1)
Limb9 (10.3)4 (10.1)1 (2.5)
Other anomalies/syndromes4† (4.6)01‡ (2.5)
  • *One fetus can be counted in more than one subgroup if it has multiple malformations, but only once in total.

  • †Including craniosynostosis (n=2), teratogenic syndromes with malformations (n=1), genetic syndromes+microdeletions (n=1).

  • ‡Situs inversus (n=1).

  • GA, gestational age; PDA, patent ductus arteriosus.