Table 1

Study characteristics

Study and yearCountryParticipantsExercise
intervention
Anxiety
assessment
Baptista et al, 201250 BrazilWomen (n=80) 18–65 years of age with FM assigned to exercise (n=40, age, Embedded Image =49.5 years) or control (n=40, age, Embedded Image =49.1 years) groupDance exercise 2 times/week, 60 min/session, for 12 weeksSTAI
Beltran, 200351 USAWomen (n=21) 22–65 years of age with FM assigned to exercise (n=11, age, Embedded Image ±SD=50.1±12.6 years) or control (n=10, age, Embedded Image ±SD=53.7±6.9 years) groupAerobic aquatic exercise, 3 times/week, 25 min/session, 60%–85% MHR, for 10 weeksAIMS
Cheung et al, 201752 USAMen and women (n=51) >65 years of age with knee OA assigned to exercise (n=28, age, Embedded Image ±SD=74.4±7.5 years) or control (n=23, age, Embedded Image ±SD=71.8±8.0 years) groupAerobic exercise, 5 times/week, 20–30 min/session for 8 weeks, and strength exercise 3 times/week, 30 min/session for 8 weeks (10+ exercises)HADS
Fransen et al, 200753 AustraliaMen and women (n=96) 59–85 years of age with hip or knee OA assigned to hydrotherapy (n=55, age, Embedded Image ±SD=70±6.3 years) or wait list control (n=41, age, Embedded Image ±SD=69.6±6.1 years) groupHydrotherapy exercises in warm water, 2 times/week, 60 min/session, for 12 weeksDASS21
French et al, 201354 IrelandMen and women (n=88) 40–80 years of age with hip OA assigned to exercise (n=45, age, Embedded Image ±SD=61.8±9.7 years) or control (n=43, age, Embedded Image ±SD=60.8±9.7 years) groupAerobic and strength training, 30 min/session, for 8 weeks, up to 5 strength exercisesHADS
Gowans et al, 200155 CanadaMen and women (n=57) with FM assigned to an exercise (n=30, age, Embedded Image ±SD=44.6±8.7 years) or control (n=27, age, Embedded Image ±SD=49.8±7.3 years) groupAerobic exercise (2 walking/jogging classes in a gym, 1 pool class), 3 times/week, 30 min/session, 60%–75% MHR, for 23 weeksMHI, STAI
Jones et al, 200856 USAMen and women (n=101) 18–65 years of age with FM assigned to an exercise (n=47, age, Embedded Image ±SD=49.6±7.7 years) or control (n=54, age, Embedded Image ±SD=49.8±7.9 years) groupAerobic exercise 3 times/week, 30 min/session,
40%–50% MHR and strength exercise, 3 times/week, 10 min/session, for 24 weeks
FIQ (Anxiety)
Komatireddy et al, 199757 USAMen and women (n=49) 35–76 years of age with RA assigned to exercise (n=25, Embedded Image ±SD=57.7±9.8 years of age, range 40–72 years) or control (n=24, Embedded Image ±SD=60.5±11 years of age, range 35–76 years) groupCircuit weight training with light loads and high repetitions, 7 exercises, 2–3 circuits/session, 12–15 reps, 30 s rest between sets, 20–27 min/session, ≥3 times/week, RPE of 3–4, for 12 weeksAIMS
Minor et al, 198958 USAMen and women (n=115) 21–83 years of age with RA or OA assigned to a pool (n=47), walking (n=36) or control group (n=32)Aerobic aquatics or walking group, 3 times/week, 60 min/session (30 min of this was aerobic), 60%–80% MHR, for 12 weeksAIMS
Munguía-Izquierdo and Legaz-Arrese, 200859 SpainMen and women (n=60) 18–60 years of age with FM assigned to exercise (n=35, Embedded Image ±SD=50.0±7.0 years of age) or control (n=25, Embedded Image ±SD=46.0±8.0 years of age) groupAerobic aquatic exercise, 3 times/week, 20–30 min/session, 50%–80% MHR, and strength exercise 3 times/week, 8–20 min/session, 1–3 sets, 8–15 reps, for 16 weeksSTAI
Sañudo et al, 201560 SpainWomen (n=32) with FM assigned to exercise (n=16, Embedded Image ±SD=55.0±8.0 years of age) or control (n=16, Embedded Image ±SD=58.0±6.9 years of age) groupAerobic/interval training, 2 times/week, 30–35 min/session, 60%–80% MHR, for 24 weeksVAS
Schachter et al, 200361 CanadaWomen (n=143) 20–55 years of age with FM assigned to a short bout (n=56, Embedded Image ±SD=41.9±8.6 years of age), long bout (n=51, Embedded Image ±SD=41.3±8.7 years of age) or control group (n=36, Embedded Image ±SD=42.5±6.7 years of age)Low-impact, videotape-based aerobic exercise to music. Short bout, 2 times/day, 7.1 times/week, 12.3 min/session, 60% HRR; long bout group: 1 times/day, 3.6 times/week, 24.5 min/session, 60% HRR, for 16 weeksFIQ (Anxiety)
Tomas-Carus et al, 200862 PortugalWomen with FM (n=33) assigned to aquatic exercise (n=17, Embedded Image ±SD=50.7±10.6 years of age) or control group (n=16, Embedded Image ±SD=50.9±6.7 years of age)Pool exercises performed in warm water, 3 times/week, 20 min, aerobic phase, 60%–65% MHR, strength exercise, 20 min, 4 sets, 10 reps, for 32 weeksFIQ (Anxiety), STAI
Tomas-Carus et al, 200763 PortugalWomen with FM (n=34) assigned to aquatic exercise (n=17, Embedded Image ±SD=51±10.0 years of age) or control group (n=17, Embedded Image ±SD=51±9.0 years of age)Pool exercises performed in warm water, 3 times/week, 20 min, aerobic phase, 60%–65% MHR, strength exercises, 20 min, 4 sets, 10 reps, for 12 weeksFIQ (Anxiety)
  • Description of groups from each study limited to those that met the criteria for inclusion.

  • Embedded Image ±SD, mean±SD; AIMS, Arthritis Impact and Measurement Scale; DASS21, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale; FIQ, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire; FM, fibromyalgia; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HRR, heart rate reserve; MHI, Mental Health Inventory; MHR, maximum heart rate; OA, osteoarthritis; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; reps, repetitions; RPE, rating of perceived exertion; STAI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; VAS, visual analogue scale.