Table 1

Univariable results of factors associated with GHQ-12 score, GNH Survey 2015

VariablesParticipants*Prevalence of common mental
disorders
Unadjusted mean change in
GHQ-12 score
Nn%† (95% CI)β‡ (95% CI)P value
Income<0.001
 High income271164024.0 (21.6 to 26.6)Reference
 Low income4330141132.7 (30.9 to 34.6)0.98 (0.73 to 1.22)
Residence0.006
 Urban198747224.7 (20.9 to 28.8)Reference
 Rural5059157931.4 (29.7 to 33.1)0.71 (0.20 to 1.21)
Gender<0.001
 Male292377626.9 (24.6 to 29.3)Reference
 Female4120127330.9 (27.8 to 34.2)0.94 (0.69 to 1.19)
Age<0.001
 15–24111329726.9 (24.0 to 30.0)Reference
 25–34180043924.3 (21.8 to 26.9)−0.20 (−0.53 to 0.13)
 35–44156240226.5 (22.8 to 30.6)−0.08 (−0.58 to 0.41)
 45–54118337631.9 (29.0 to 34.9)0.49 (0.02 to 0.97)
 55–6477626334.4 (30.9 to 38.1)0.80 (0.25 to 1.34)
 65+61227444.3 (39.8 to 49.0)2.48 (1.77 to 3.18)
Marital status<0.001
 Married5328149826.6 (25.6 to 31.0)Reference
 Never married107028128.2 (24.0 to 29.3)−0.20 (−0.66 to 0.26)
 Divorced/widowed64827242.4 (38.1 to 46.7)2.35 (1.82 to 2.88)
Literacy<0.001
 Literate357887825.0 (22.7 to 27.4)Reference
 Illiterate3468117333.9 (31.4 to 36.5)1.28 (1.01 to 1.56)
Occupation<0.001
 Farmers3377111633.2 (31.5 to 34.8)Reference
 Home makers117732728.2 (23.4 to 33.6)−0.17 (−0.68 to 0.33)
 Students54514527.0 (23.9 to 30.4)−1.01 (−1.46 to −0.55)
 Civil/business§154132321.7 (18.8 to 24.9)−1.33 (−1.63 to −1.03)
 Others40514034.2 (28.7 to 40.1)0.51 (−0.06 to 1.08)
Household size0.060
 3–4 members249171229.0 (25.8 to 32.3)Reference
 1–2 members91030233.0 (29.6 to 36.6)0.60 (0.16 to 1.04)
 5–6 members245368828.1 (25.6 to 30.7)0.03 (−0.23 to 0.28)
> 7 members119034729.3 (26.4 to 32.5)0.05 (−0.32 to 0.43)
Religion0.670
 Buddhist5882167928.7 (26.5 to 31.1)Reference
 Hindu100033133.0 (28.9 to 37.5)0.03 (−0.32 to 0.38)
 Others1634125.1 (18.6 to 33.0)−0.27 (−0.92 to 0.38)
Spirituality<0.001
 Very326288927.3 (25.1 to 29.7)Reference
 Moderately317496030.3 (27.1 to 33.7)0.51 (0.27 to 0.74)
 Not at all61020233.4 (29.6 to 37.4)0.88 (0.44 to 1.32)
Meditation0.190
 Yes129139030.7 (28.0 to 3.5)Reference
 Never5755166128.9 (26.3 to 31.7)0.21 (−0.10 to 0.51)
Consideration of karma in daily life
 Regularly4048110727.5 (24.9 to 30.3)Reference
 Occasionally221968530.9 (27.6 to 34.4)0.68 (0.43 to 0.94)
 Never77625833.3 (29.7 to 37.0)0.98 (0.46 to 1.50)
Self-reported health status<0.001
 Good health6315166026.4 (24.2 to 28.7)Reference
 Poor health73139154.1 (48.9 to 59.3)3.58 (3.07 to 4.09)
Disability<0.001
 No5960160127.0 (24.6 to 29.5)Reference
 Yes108444842.1 (38.6 to 45.7)2.28 (1.89 to 2.68)
Walking distance to health centre (min)<0.001
 ≤30352992926.6 (24.3 to 29.1)Reference
 31–60 137940829.5 (25.4 to 34.1)0.21 (−0.15 to 0.57)
 ≥61213771433.5 (30.9 to 36.2)0.78 (0.43 to 1.13)
  • *Missing values for all factors were <112.

  • †Percentage may not match n/N due to adjustment for the survey design using Stata’s SVY command.

  • ‡The regression coefficients (β) denote the average change in GHQ-12 score.

  • §Includes civil servants, local government, corporate, business and armed forces.

  • GHQ-12, General Health Questionnaire; GNH, Gross National Happiness.