Table 1

Basic characteristics according to age and frailty status

All (n=663)Robust (n=341)Prefrail (n=281)Frail (n=41)P value
Age ≥ 65 years
 Pain1.07 (0.96)0.96 (0.82)1.13 (0.86)<0.001
 Age (years)73.13 (5.11)72.17 (4.91)73.74 (5.00)76.91 (5.30)<0.001
 Male sex (%)354 (53.4)232 (68.0)114 (40.6)8 (19.5)<0.001
 Body mass index24.71 (3.44)24.54 (3.04)24.88 (3.77)24.92 (4.04)0.446
 Education (years)3.28 (4.32)4.19 (4.71)2.49 (3.75)1.07 (2.17)<0.001
 Charlson Comorbidity Index1.58 (1.33)1.42 (1.25)1.69 (1.39)2.12 (1.29)<0.001
 CES Depression Scale2.52 (4.43)1.78 (2.93)2.56 (4.13)8.49 (9.57)<0.001
 Mini-Mental State Examination23.91 (3.93)24.95 (3.46)23.17 (3.96)20.34 (4.27)<0.001
  Chinese Version Verbal Learning Test5.51 (2.30)5.79 (2.17)5.40 (2.37)3.93 (2.31)<0.001
  Boston Naming Test8.26 (2.83)8.90 (2.79)7.75 (2.72)6.44 (2.36)<0.001
  Verbal Fluency Test13.24 (4.35)14.16 (4.54)12.54 (3.75)10.41 (4.48)<0.001
  Taylor Complex Figure Test26.06 (9.01)28.43 (6.94)24.45 (9.62)17.36 (11.91)<0.001
  Digit Backward Test2.35 (1.87)2.84 (1.79)1.90 (1.82)1.37 (1.62)<0.001
  Clock Drawing Test6.05 (2.84)6.71 (2.54)5.59 (2.90)3.78 (2.98)<0.001