Table 3

Characteristics and publication fate of the nine unregistered studies

YearRegionExplanationPublication fateFunding
2013Central and South AmericaAppeared unaware of requirements for trial registration. Confused ethical approval with registration.Published but withdrawn shortly thereafter; no reason given.Government
2015EuropeBegan before registration required but not subsequently registered prior to submission.Published. No explanation of registration problem in the paper.Government
2015EuropeConfused ethical approval with registration. Did not accept that study needed to be registered as a trial.Published. Explanation about registration is provided in the paper.Government
2015EuropeNoneCould not locate a publication.None
2016EuropeDid not accept that study was a clinical trial.Published. No explanation of registration problem in the paper.Government
2016AsiaNoneCould not locate a publication, but it may be too soon to expect one.Unknown (not reported in paper)
2017AsiaDid not accept that study was a clinical trial.Too soon to expect publication elsewhere.Government, foundation, industry (not pharmaceutical/device).
2017AsiaNo explanationToo soon to expect publication elsewhere.Academic
2017Africa/Middle EastAppeared unaware of requirements for trial registration; confused ethical approval with registration.Too soon to expect publication elsewhere.None