Table 2

Multivariable analyses of factors associated with GHQ-12 score, GNH Survey 2015

Socioeconomic factorsModel 1
(Socioeconomic factors)
Model 2
(Socioeconomic, spiritual and religious factors)
Model 3
(Socioeconomic, spiritual, religious and health factors)
Mean change
β* (95% CI)
P valueMean change
β* (95% CI)
P valueMean change
β* (95% CI)
P value
Age (years)<0.001<0.001<0.001
 15–24ReferenceReferenceReference
 25–34−0.28 (−0.73 to 0.18)−0.18 (−0.64 to  0.28)−0.28 (−0.73 to 0.16)
 35–44−0.21 (−0.73 to 0.32)−0.05 (−0.56 to 0.46)−0.28 (−0.77 to 0.21)
 45–540.24 (−0.34 to 0.82)0.47 (−0.12 to 1.06)0.08 (−0.48 to 0.65)
 55–640.52 (−0.11 to 1.14)0.80 (0.18 to 1.42)0.32 (−0.26 to 0.90)
 65+1.90 (1.14 to 2.65)2.24 (1.46 to 3.02)1.29 (0.57 to 2.00)
Gender<0.001<0.001<0.001
 MaleReferenceReferenceReference
 Female0.84 (0.59 to 1.10)0.82 (0.57 to 1.08)0.70 (0.45 to 0.95)
Marital status<0.001<0.001<0.001
 MarriedReferenceReferenceReference
 Never married0.26 (−0.23 to 0.74)0.18 (−0.30 to 0.66)0.13 (−0.34 to 0.60)
 Divorced/widowed1.64 (1.12 to 2.17)1.65 (1.13 to 2.17)1.55 (1.08 to 2.02)
Literacy<0.001<0.001<0.001
 LiterateReferenceReferenceReference
 Illiterate0.61 (0.33 to 0.88)0.57 (0.29 to 0.84)0.48 (0.21 to 0.74)
Occupation0.002<0.0010.003
 FarmersReferenceReferenceReference
 Home makers0.02 (−0.43 to 0.47)0.04 (−0.39 to 0.48)−0.01 (−0.46 to 0.43)
 Students0.02 (−0.83 to 0.16)−0.38 (−0.88 to 0.12)−0.42 (−0.92 to 0.09)
 Civil/business†0.02 (−0.67 to −0.01)−0.35 (−0.66 to −0.04)−0.31 (−0.62 to −0.00)
 Others0.02 (0.13 to 1.31)0.73 (0.16 to 1.30)0.64 (0.10 to 1.17)
Income<0.001<0.001<0.001
 High incomeReferenceReferenceReference
 Low income0.45 (0.23 to 0.68)0.44 (0.22 to 0.67)0.37 (0.15 to 0.59)
Residence0.507
 UrbanReference
 Rural0.12 (−0.24 to 0.48)
Household size0.03 (−0.03 to 0.08)0.374
Religious and spiritual factors
Spirituality<0.001<0.001
 Very spiritualReferenceReference
 Moderately spiritual0.58 (0.30 to 0.87)0.61 (0.34 to 0.88)
 No and somewhat0.79 (0.29 to 1.29)0.76 (0.28 to 1.23)
Consider karma in daily life<0.001<0.001
 RegularlyReferenceReference
 Occasionally0.52 (0.28 to 0.77)0.53 (0.29 to 0.77)
 Never0.81 (0.26 to 1.35)0.80 (0.26 to 1.34)
Meditation0.146
YesReference
 No−0.22 (−0.52 to 0.08)
Health-related factors
Self-reported health status<0.001
 Good healthReference
 Poor health2.59 (2.13 to 3.06)
Disability<0.001
 No disabilityReference
 Disability1.01 (0.63 to 1.40)
Walking distance to health centre (min)0.155
 ≤30Reference
 31–60−0.01 (−0.30 to 0.32)
 ≥610.30 (0.01 to 0.60)
  • *The regression coefficients (β) denote the average change in GHQ-12 score.

  • †Includes civil servants, local government, corporate, business and arm force.

  • GHQ-12, General Health Questionnaire; GNH, Gross National Happiness.