Age ≥65 years
Moderate-to-severe pain1.4 (0.9 to 1.9)4.4 (2.2 to 8.7)*1.1 (0.8 to 1.6)2.8 (1.3 to 5.9)*1.1 (0.8 to 1.6)3.0 (1.3 to 6.6)*
Age ≥75 years2.2 (1.5 to 3.3)*7.3 (3.2 to −17.1)*2.2 (1.5 to 3.4)*6.8 (2.8 to 16.5)*
Female sex3.2 (2.2 to 4.6)*9.0 (3.6 to 22.8)*2.9 (2.0 to 4.2)*6.0 (2.3 to 15.9)*
Education ≥6 years0.7 (0.5 to 0.9)0.3 (0.1 to 1.1)0.8 (0.5 to 1.2)0.3 (0.1 to 1.2)
Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥20.9 (0.6 to 1.3)1.3 (0.5 to 3.1)0.9 (0.6 to 1.3)1.3 (0.5 to 3.1)
CES Depression Sale ≥163.5 (0.7 to 17.7)40.1 (7.2 to 223.1)*3.7 (0.7 to 18.3)43.9 (7.2 to 265.9)*
Boston Naming Test1.3 (0.7 to 2.3)1.0 (0.3 to 2.9)
Taylor Complex Figure Test1.7 (0.9 to 2.9)5.1 (2.0 to 13.2)*
Digit Backward Test1.7 (1.1 to 2.5)*1.3 (0.6 to 3.1)
Clock Drawing Test0.8 (0.4 to 1.6)2.5 (0.9 to 6.8)
  • *P<0.05.

  • †Unadjusted.

  • ‡Adjusted for age, gender, educational year, comorbidity and depressive mood.

  • §Adjusted for covariates in model 2 and plus cognitive functions significantly related to pain in Pearson’s correlation tests.

  • CES, Center for Epidemiologic Studies.