Table 1

Baseline participant demographics

ReTrain
(n=23)
Control (n=22)
Gender, n
 Male (%)16 (70)14 (67)
 Age, years, mean (SD)70 (12)71 (10)
Age category, years (n=45), n (%)
 <451 (4)0
 46–500 (0)1 (5)
 51–603 (13)2 (9)
 61–7010 (43)6 (27)
 71–805 (22)8 (36)
 81–902 (9)5 (23)
 90+2 (9)0 (0)
Time since stroke, months, n (%)
 <123 (13)3 (14)
 12–244 (17)4 (18)
 25–485 (22)5 (23)
 49–722 (9)5 (23)
 73–964 (17)2 (9)
 97+5 (22)3 (14)
Time since stroke minimisation categories, months, n (%)
 ≤31 (4)0 (0)
 >322 (96)22 (100)
Type of stroke, n (%)
 Haemorrhagic3 (13)1 (5)
 Ischaemic15 (65)15 (68)
 Both0 (0)1 (5)
 Missing5 (22)5 (23)
Stroke rehabilitation, weeks
 n2121
 Average no of weeks (SD)8 (9)14 (19)
 Median no of weeks612
 Range0–320–88
 Unknown length rehab, n21
Functional disability (sMRS), n (%)
 01 (4)0 (0)
 12 (9)1 (5)
 24 (17)9 (41)
 316 (70)12 (55)
sMRS minimisation categories, n (%)
 ≤27 (30)10 (45)
 >216 (70)12 (55)
Comorbidities,* n (%)
 Hypertension18 (78)18 (82)
 Type 2 diabetes mellitus4 (17)4 (18)
 Depression8 (35)5 (23)
 Chronic kidney disease2 (9)1 (4)
 Asthma/COPD4 (17)3 (14)
 Other5 (22)3 (14)
Medications,* n (%)
 Diuretics3 (13)1 (5)
 Anticoagulants8 (35)10 (45)
 Antiplatelet15 (65)12 (55)
Antihypertensives
  Calcium channel blockers6 (26)14 (64)
  ACE inhibitors13 (57)8 (36)
  Other9 (39)7 (32)
 Statins (%)18 (78)19 (86)
 Antidepressants (%)8 (35)5 (23)
 Diabetes medication (%)4 (17)4 (18)
 Chronic pain medication (%)12 (52)8 (36)
 Other (%)5 (22)3 (14)
Employment status, n (%)
 Employed (and working)2 (9)1 (5)
 Retired18 (78)15 (68)
 Semiretired1 (4)0 (0)
 Unemployed2 (9)5 (27)
Prestroke exercise history, n
 Exerciser (%)10 (43)8 (36)
MMSE
 n22,†22
 Mean (SD)27.5 (2.54)27.9 (3.01)
 Median2829
 Range19–30‡19–30‡
  • *Participants may have more than one comorbidity/medication.

  • †One participant with severe aphasia had difficulties completing the MMSE. The participant could understand and follow instructions and was considered cognitively able to participate in the trial.

  • ‡Higher scores indicate better cognitive function. Participants range from no to moderate degree of cognitive impairment.

  • ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; COPD, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; MMSE, Mini–mental state examination; ReTrain, Rehabilitation Training; sMRS, Simplified Modified Rankin Scale score.