Table 1

Overview of 21 peer-reviewed studies used in health symptom meta-analysis

AuthorYear publishedGWV (n)NGV (n)Sampling strategyCountryDate of collection
CDC MMWR—Unit A*1995313364Military unitUSAJanuary to March 1995
CDC MMWR—Unit B*1995119421Military unitUSAJanuary to March 1995
CDC MMWR—Unit C*1995262581Military unitUSAJanuary to March 1995
CDC MMWR—Unit D*19954701397Military unitUSAJanuary to March 1995
Cherry et al 200180143900PopulationUKDecember 1997 to September 1999
Doebbling et al200018961799PopulationUSASeptember 1995 to May 1996
Fukuda et al*199811632538Military unitUSAJanuary to March 1995
Gray et al 200238313104Military unitUSAMay 1997 to July 1999
Iannacchione et al 201164801522PopulationUSAMay 2007 to April 2009
Iowa—Active Duty†1997985968PopulationUSASeptember 1995 to May 1996
Iowa—NG/Reserve†1997911831PopulationUSASeptember 1995 to May 1996
Ishøy et al 1999686231PopulationDenmarkJanuary 1997 to January 1998
Kang et al 200011 4419476PopulationUSANovember 1995 to ????
Kelsall et al 200414301533PopulationAustraliaAugust 2000 to April 2002
Knoke et al 2000524935Military unitUSALate 1994 to early 1995
Murphy et al 2006149622PopulationUK2002 to 2003
Nisenbaum et al200434542577PopulationUKNovember 1997 to November 1998
Proctor et al§199818648Military unitUSASpring 1994 to Fall 1996
Shapiro et al 2002610516PopulationUSAOctober 1998 to April 1999
Simmons et al 200423 35817 730PopulationUKAugust 1998 to March 2001
Sostek et al 19965744Military unitUSA1994 to no end date mentioned but published in December 1996
Steele20001435409PopulationUSAFebruary to August 1998
Stretch et al—Active Duty19957151576Military unitUSANo mention but published in 1995
Stretch et al— Reserves1995766948Military unitUSANo mention but published in 1995
Unwin et al—Male‡199932842408PopulationUKAugust 1997 to November 1998
Unwin et al— Female‡2002236192PopulationUKAugust 1997 to November 1998
  • *Overlapping populations, for Fukuda et al 4 only used symptoms that were not reported in CDC MMWR.2

  • †Overlapping populations, for Doebbling et al 3 only used symptoms that were not reported in Iowa.7

  • ‡Overlapping populations, for Nisenbaum et al 49 only used symptoms that were not reported in Unwin et al. 18 19

  • §NGV group for Proctor et al 10 was GW-era personnel deployed to Germany; all other control groups were non-deployed GW-era veterans.

  • CDC MMWR, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; GWV, Gulf War-deployed veterans; NG, National Guard; NGV, non-deployed Gulf War-era control veterans.