Table 1

Australian diagnostic criteria and categories for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)27

Diagnostic criteriaDiagnostic categories
FASD with 3 sentinel facial features*FASD with <3 sentinel facial features
Prenatal alcohol exposureConfirmed or unknownConfirmed
Neurodevelopmental domains
  • Brain structure/neurology

  • Motor skills

  • Cognition

  • Language

  • Academic Achievement

  • Memory

  • Attention

  • Executive function, including impulse control and hyperactivity

  • Affect regulation

  • Adaptive behaviour, social skills or social communication

Severe impairment† in at least three neurodevelopmental domainsSevere impairment† in at least three neurodevelopmental domains
Sentinel facial features
  • Short palpebral fissure

  • Smooth philtrum

  • Thin upper lip

Presence of 3 sentinel facial featuresPresence of 0, 1 or 2 sentinel facial features
  • *FASD with 3 sentinel facial features similar to fetal alcohol syndrome.

  • †Severe impairment is defined as either a global score or a major subdomain score on a standardised validated neurodevelopmental scale that is  2 SD below the mean or <3rd percentile.