Table 3

Multivariate logistic regression models between service-seeking and specific symptoms

Buying medicine from shops (n1=1484, n2=445)Taking leftover medicine (n1=1668, n2=257)Seeking help from clinics (n1=857, n2=1078)Getting antibiotics at clinics (n1=117, n2=692)Getting antibiotics at shops (n1=103, n2=313)
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Gender1.0850.840 to 1.400 2.016 1.411 to 2.881 0.8190.653 to 1.0270.9520.592 to 1.5320.8630.497 to 1.498
Age0.9840.873 to 1.1090.8660.742 to 1.0111.1040.993 to 1.2270.8870.704 to 1.1181.0220.789 to 1.324
Education 1.23 1.068 to 1.417 1.283 1.073 to 1.535 0.79 0.697 to 0.896 0.8490.646 to 1.1141.1330.842 to 1.523
Sore throat1.0160.810 to 1.2751.3030.971 to 1.748 1.355 1.109 to 1.654 2.05 1.337 to 3.143 1.6040.990 to 2.599
Rhinorrhoea without pus0.8380.669 to 1.0511.0570.791 to 1.4111.0450.856 to 1.2761.250.816 to 1.9150.7920.486 to 1.290
Rhinorrhoea with pus0.960.714 to 1.2920.780.531 to 1.1451.0450.804 to 1.3591.0130.566 to 1.8131.7960.869 to 3.711
Dry cough 1.452 1.124 to 1.875 0.8090.587 to 1.114 1.492 1.198 to 1.859 1.3180.812 to 2.1401.3280.777 to 2.269
Productive cough1.0260.798 to 1.3181.280.926 to 1.7701.1150.891 to 1.3950.9070.561 to 1.466 1.971 1.125 to 3.453
Shortness of breath0.7820.571 to 1.0710.6950.458 to 1.054 1.707 1.287 to 2.265 0.9270.533 to 1.6131.0490.488 to 2.255
Earache/tinnitus1.4210.979 to 2.0631.3050.825 to 2.0630.7570.535 to 1.072 4.884 1.162 to 20.522 1.4890.608 to 3.648
Headache general discomfort1.1020.875 to 1.3891.5811.169 to 2.1381.1780.962 to 1.4431.1840.765 to 1.8311.0260.623 to 1.690
Fever0.7780.583 to 1.0371.2230.866 to 1.725 2.142 1.654 to 2.775 1.330.791 to 2.2361.740.833 to 3.633
  • n1 and n2 stand for the number of no and yes response, respectively, to each service use behaviour; for each service use behaviour, no (n1) was coded as 0 and yes (n2) as 1. Gender: 1=male, 2=female; age group: 1 ≤40 years,  2=41–50 years,  3=51–60 years, 4 ≥61 years; education: 1=0 years, 2=1–6 years, 3=7–9 years, 4 ≥10  years; symptoms: no=0 and yes=1. Medicines comprise all kinds of drugs used for treating illnesses, and antibiotics are one kind of medicines. 

  • Bold P value, below the significant level of 0.05.