Table 4

The factors and the number of items included in the HSOPSC and NHSOPSC

Definition: The extent to which…Cronbach’s α (T1)Cronbach’s α (T2)
Norwegian version of HSOPSC
12 factors, 42 items and 2 outcome items
Teamwork within units, 4 itemsStaff support each other, treat each other with respect and work together as a team.0.830.84
Teamwork across units, 4 itemsHospital units cooperate and coordinate with one another to provide the best care for patients.0.620.71
Staffing, 4 itemsThere are enough staff to handle the workload and work hours are appropriate to provide the best care for patients.0.630.61
Non-punitive response to errors, 3 itemsStaff feel that their mistakes and event reports are not held against them and that mistakes are not kept in their personnel file.0.730.62
Handoff and transition, 4 itemsImportant patient care information is transferred across hospital units and during shift changes.0.690.71
Feedback and communication about error,3 itemsStaff are informed about errors that happen, are given feedback about changes implemented and discuss ways to prevent errors.0.630.79
Communication openness, 3 itemsStaff freely speak up if they see something that may negatively affect a patient and feel free to question those with more authority.0.460.7
Supervisor/manager expectations and actions promoting patient safety, 4 itemsSupervisors/managers consider staff suggestions for improving patient safety, praise staff for following patient safety procedures and do not overlook patient safety problems.0.790.74
Overall perception of patient safety, 4 itemsProcedures and systems are good at preventing errors and there is a lack of patient safety problems.0.680.74
Management support for patient safety, 3 itemsHospital management provides a work climate that promotes patient safety and shows that patient safety is a top priority.0.740.84
Organisational learning - continuous  improvement, 3 itemsMistakes have led to positive changes and changes are evaluated for effectiveness.0.670.72
Frequency of events reported, 3 items
Mistakes of the following types are reported: (1) mistakes caught and corrected before affecting the patient, (2) mistakes with no potential to harm the patient and (3) mistakes that could harm the patient but do not.0.70.69
Patient safety grade, 1 item
Number of events reported, 1 item
Norwegian version of NHSOPSC 10 factors, 41 items and 2 outcome items
Teamwork, 4 itemsStaff treat each other with respect, support one another and feel like they are part of a team.0.780.71
Staffing, 4 itemsThere are enough staff to handle the workload, meet residents’ needs during shift changes and keep residents safe because there is not much staff turnover.0.620.41
Non-punitive response to mistakes, 4 itemsStaff are not blamed when a resident is harmed, are treated fairly when they make mistakes and feel safe reporting their mistakes.0.50.49
Handoffs, 3 items*Staff are told what they need to know before taking care of a resident or when a resident’s care plan changes, and have all the information they need when residents are transferred from the hospital.0.760.72
Feedback and communication about incidents, 4 itemsStaff discuss ways to keep residents safe, tell someone if they see something that might harm a resident and talk about ways to keep incidents from happening again.0.740.56
Communication openness, 3 itemsStaff speak up about problems, and their ideas and suggestions are valued.0.450.66
Supervisor expectations and actions promoting patient safety, 3 itemsSupervisors listen to staff ideas and suggestions about resident safety, praise staff who follow the right procedures and pay attention to safety problems.0.840.85
Management and organisational learning, 10 items†Nursing home management provides a work climate that promotes resident safety and shows that resident safety is a top priority. There is a learning culture that facilitates making changes to improve resident safety and evaluates changes for effectiveness. Residents are well cared for and safe.0.90.89
Compliance with procedures, 3 itemsStaff follow standard procedures to care for residents and do not use short cuts to get their work done faster.0.460.52
Training and skills, 3 itemsStaff get the training they need, have enough training on how to handle difficult residents and understand the training they get in the nursing home.0.710.68
Overall patient safety grade, 1 item
Overall safe nursing home, 1 item
  • *This study uses three ‘Handoff’ items (originally four) based on the psychometric testing of the Norwegian translated version of the NHSOPSC.

  • †The three dimensions ‘overall perceptions of patient safety’ (three items), ‘management support for patient safety’ (three items) and ‘organizational learning’ (four items) from the original NHSOPSC have in the Norwegian version been merged to one dimension called ‘Management and organizational learning’.23

  • HSOPSC, Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture; NHSOPSC, Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture.