Table 7

Multivariate analysis with a linear mixed model approach for each of the factors in the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture

Safety factors
(scale 1–5)
ItemsConstantDifference for intervention group vs controlOverall change T1 to T2 (preintervention survey to postintervention survey T2)Overall change T1 to T3 (preintervention survey T1 to postintervention survey T3)Intervention group effect for group × survey (pre-T1/post-T2) interactionIntervention group effect for group × survey (pre-T1/post-T3) interaction
β0 95% CIβ1 95% CIβ2 95% CIβ3 95% CIβ4 95% CIβ5 95% CI
Handoff and transitions43.403.29 to 3.51−0.43−0.76 to 0.04***−0.19−0.32 to −0.05**−0.260.40 to −0.12**0.250.01 to 0.49*0.280.02 to 0.53*
Organisational learning - continuous improvement33.593.46 to 3.71−0.45−0.69 to −0.21***−0.18−0.34 to –0.25*−0.45−0.65 to −0.25***0.29−0.00 to 0.58*0.410.06 to 0.76*
Teamwork within units44.103.99 to 4.21−0.12−0.29 to 0.05−0.20−0.31 to –0.09**−0.26−0.39 to −0.14***
Supervisor expectations44.053.95 to 4.16−0.11−0 to 23 to 0.00*−1.01−1.13 to −0.88***−0.31−0.46 to −0.17***
Management support for patient safety32.862.72 to 3.00−0.23−0.46 to 0.160.01−0.15 to 0.12−0.31−0.48 to −0.14***
Overall perceptions of patient safety43.573.45 to 3.69−0.53−0.75 to 0.30***−0.20−0.35 to −0.05**−0.53−0.71 to −0.36***0.300.03 to 0.57*0.500.19 to 0.80**
Feedback and communication about error33.273.14 to 3.40−0.08−0.30 to 0.14−0.05−0.18 to 0.09−0.08−0.26 to 0.09
Communication openness33.763.66 to 3.86−0.26−0.43 to 0.09**0.09−0.04 to 0.22−0.02−0.17 to 0.13
Frequency of events reported32.632.50 to 2.760.04−0.15 to 0.240.07−0.07 to 0.220.06−0.10 to 0.23
Teamwork across units43.173.07 to 3.260.00−0.16 to 0.16−0.14−0.24 to −0.03**−0.16−0.26 to −0.06**
Staffing43.413.29 to 3.53−0.49−0.72 to 0.26***−0.25−0.37 to −0.14***−0.67−0.84 to −0.50***0.270.07 to 0.48*0.490.19 to 0.79**
Non-punitive response to errors34.164.05 to 4.27−0.50−0.72 to −0.28***−0.09−0.22 to 0.04−0.03−0.18 to 0.120.240.00 to 0.49*0.13−0.15 to 0.40
Patient safety grade13.503.38 to 3.63−0.22−0.42 to −0.03*−0.18−0.33 to −0.04*−0.46−0.63 to −0.30***
Number of events reported12.111.92 to 2.29−0.02−0.32 to 0.270.11−0.08 to 0.300.570.32 to 0.83***
  • *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.