Table 1

Beneficiary and hospital characteristics as a percentage of total emergency department visits by year

200620092012Change, % per year (95%  CI)*
Beneficiary characteristics
  Age
  Mean, years79.378.978.8−0.08 (−0.08 to −0.07)
  65–6913.8%16.1%17.1%+0.55 (0.53 to 0.57)
  70–7937.6%36.7%36.9%−0.12 (-0.15 to −0.09)
  ≥8048.7%47.2%46.1%−0.43 (−0.46 to −0.40)
  Gender
  Female66.1%60.9%60.6%−0.94 (−0.97 to −0.91)
 Race
  White85.9%84.8%84.1%−0.29 (−0.31 to −0.27)
  Black10.4%10.7%11.0%+0.11 (0.10 to 0.13)
  Asian0.9%1.2%1.3%+0.06 (0.06 to 0.07)
  Hispanic1.7%2.0%1.9%+0.04 (0.03 to 0.05)
  Other1.2%1.4%1.7%+0.05 (0.04 to 0.06)
  Medicaid coverage
  Yes22.4%23.2%23.1%+0.12 (0.09 to 0.14)
 Average number of HCCs per beneficiary
  Overall4.64.94.9+0.05 (0.049 to 0.054)
  Low-intensity visits3.94.03.9+0.013 (0.0098 to 0.015)
  High-intensity visits5.55.75.7+0.023 (0.020 to 0.026)
Hospital characteristics
  Region
  Northeast19.9%19.5%18.7%−0.20 (−0.22 to −0.17)
  Midwest25.2%23.4%23.0%−0.38 (−0.41 to −0.36)
  South39.9%41.2%41.9%+0.33 (0.30 to 0.36)
  West14.0%15.3%15.8%+0.30 (0.28 to 0.32)
 RUCA
  Urban71.5%72.9%73.1%+0.26 (0.24 to 0.29)
  Suburban3.0%3.1%3.1%+0.02 (0.01 to 0.03)
  Large rural town16.1%15.4%15.3%−0.13 (−0.15 to −0.11)
  Small town/isolated rural8.3%7.6%7.4%−0.16 (−0.17 to −0.14)
  Teaching status
  Major12.3%12.7%12.3%+0,001 (−0.02 to +0.02)
  Minor26.4%27.2%30.8%+0.74 (0.72 to 0.77)
  Non-teaching60.4%59.5%56.2%−0.69 (−0.72 to −0.66)
 Size
  Small (1–99 beds)16.9%15.7%16.2%−0.12 (−0.15 to −0.10)
  Medium (100–399 beds)58.6%58.1%56.8%−0.30 (−0.33 to −0.28)
  Large (400+beds)23.6%25.6%26.4%+0.48 (0.46 to 0.50)
  Profit status
  For profit12.9%13.5%14.9%+0.33 (0.31 to 0.35)
  Not for profit73.9%73.3%72.5%−0.24 (−0.26 to −0.21)
  Government, non-federal12.3%12.6%12.0%−0.04 (−0.06 to −0.02)
  Trauma centre
  No49.2%47.2%44.2%−0.83 (−0.86 to −0.80)
  Yes38.2%40.6%43.7%+0.91 (0.88 to 0.93)
  Missing12.5%12.2%12.1%−0.07 (−0.09 to −0.05)
  • *All differences were statistically significant at P<0.001 with the exception of proportion of visits to major teaching hospitals (P=0.92).

  • HCC, Hierarchical Condition Category; RUCA, region, rural versus urban location.