Table 3

Method of outcome measurements

OutcomeMeasurement metrics
IncidenceCumulative incidence of RDT or microscopy confirmed locally acquired cases identified at study health facilities
SeroprevalencePrevalence of antibody response to validated Plasmodium falciparum antigens detected by ELISA
Infection prevalencePrevalence of infection detected by ultrasensitive qPCR using whole blood
Intervention level coverageProportion of index cases for which a study intervention is implemented
Individual level coverageRfMDA: Proportion of rfMDA-eligible residents of target area who take the first dose of AL
RACD: Proportion of RACD-eligible residents of target area who undergo fingerprick for RDT testing
RAVC: Proportion of RAVC-eligible households in target area that are sprayed with Actellic 300CS
SafetyFrequency of serious adverse events51 deemed possibly, probably or definitely related to study intervention
AcceptabilityQuantitative assessment measured by proportion of eligible individuals who consent to receive the assigned intervention and proportion of participants sampled in endline survey who indicate they would participate in the intervention again if offered
Qualitative assessment in focus group discussions and key informant interviews
AdherenceAmong those selected for pill count, proportion of participants found to have completed AL course
CostCost (materials, labour and infrastructure) per intervention event and per person enrolled, and in RACD arms, cost per additional infection found
Cost-effectivenessCost per case averted and incremental cost effectiveness ratio for rfMDA versus RACD, RAVC versus no RAVC and rfMDA+RAVC versus RACD alone (should the test interventions prove to be more effective than control)
  • AL, artemether-lumefantrine; qPCR, quantitative PCR; RACD, reactive case detection; RAVC, reactive vector control; RDT, rapid diagnostic test; rfMDA, reactive focal mass drug administration.