Table 1

Description of outcomes and confounding factors included

VariableVariable descriptionVariable type
Primary healthcare use
 GP practiceThis variable records all consultations participants had with a healthcare professional 12 months prior to each MDHA at each time point.Outcome
 GP practice out of hours
 Practice nurse/practitioner/HCA
 Community nurse
 Health visitor
 Not specified
 Pharmacist/pharmacy technician
 Counsellor/practice counsellor
 Mental health worker
Secondary healthcare use
 InpatientTime spent by participants for each different type of hospital admission.
Days spent during the 12 month prior to MDHA.
Number of visits during the 3 months prior to MDHA.
 Day patient
TimeThis is a continuous measure of time in years from the start of baseline interview to participant’s death.Covariate
Living status
 Alone in communityParticipant’s living arrangements at each MDHA.Covariate
 Not alone in community
 Institutional living
Self-rated health
 Excellent/very goodParticipant’s perception of their general health on a five-point scale recoded into three categories.Covariate
 Normal (26–30)Participant’s categorised MMSE scores at each MDHA.Covariate
 Mild (22–25)
 Mod (18–21)
 Severe (0–17)
 No depressionCategorised GDS collected at each MDHA.Covariate
Categorised disability
 NoneCategorised disability score based on activities of daily living, collected at each MDHA.Covariate
Disease groups
 0Categorised disease groups (maximum eight). Eight disease groups were identified with each scored 1 if the participants had a GP diagnosis of said disease at each GPRR. Disease groups included the following: arthritis, cancer, cardiac disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, respiratory disease and cognitive Impairment.Covariate
  • A&E, accidents and emergency; GDS, Geriatric Depression Score; GP, general practitioner; GPRR, GP record review; HCA, healthcare assistant; MDHA, multidimensional health assessment; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination.