Table 1

Characteristics, study design and quality rating of included studies

Author, yearCountry of studyParticipants reported conditionType of study design and follow-up period (FU)InterventionOutcomes reportedQuality appraisal
Browning and Miller,32 2008UKColicRandomised controlled trial (RCT) (spinal manual therapy versus occipital decompression
FU: 4 weeks post-treatment
Resolution of symptoms
Hayden and Mullinger,33 2006UKColicRCT
Osteopathic treatment versus no treatment
FU: 4 weeks
OsteopathyParents involvement
Herzhaft-Le Roy et al, 38 2017CanadaBreastfeeding difficultiesRCT groups: osteopathic treatment versus sham
FU: over 10 days
Osteopathy+lactation consultantFeeding
Nipple pain
Global improvement
Miller et al,34 2012UKColicRCT: treatment blinded versus treatment not blinded versus no treatment blinded
FU: 10 days
Improved Global change
Neu et al,35 2014USAGastro-oesophageal refluxPilot RCT: massage versus no massage
FU: 6 weeks
Massage therapyParent–child relationsHigh
Olafsdottir et al,36 2001NorwayColicRCT: chiropractic versus no treatment
FU: over 8–14 days
ChiropracticCrying hours Improvement of symptomsMod
Wiberg et al,37 1999DenmarkColicRCT: chiropractic versus dimethicone
FU: between 8 and 11 days
ChiropracticDaily hours of infantile colicLow
Miller and Phillips,47 2009aUKColicControlled cohort study
FU: behaviour at 2–3 years of age
Temper tantrums
Miller and Newell,46 2012bUKColicProspective cohort study
FU: end of treatment (duration, not reported)
ChiropracticConsolability, crying
personal stress, sleep
Miller et al,49 2016UKBreastfeeding difficultiesService evaluation (survey)
FU: 6–12 weeks after attending clinic
Chiropractic and midwifeBreastfeedingMod
Vallone,48 2004USABreastfeeding difficultiesCohort study: infants with breastfeeding difficulties versus infants without difficulties
FU: over 6–8 weeks
Davies,39 2007AustraliaIrritable bowel syndromeCase series
FU: over 30 days
ChiropracticResolution of symptomsMod
Elster,40 2009USAAcid reflux and/or colicRetrospective case series
FU: over 2 weeks–6 months
ChiropracticResolution of symptomsLow
Marchand et al,41 2009UK‘Headache’ behavioursRetrospective case series
FU: none
ChiropracticImprovement of symptomsLow
Miller and Benfield,43 2008UKColicRetrospective case review
FU: over a 2-year period
ChiropracticAdverse eventsMod
Miller and Miller,42 2009UKBreastfeeding difficultiesProspective case series
FU: within a 2-week period
ChiropracticImprovement in feeding
Number of treatments
Stewart,44 2012AustraliaBreastfeeding difficultiesCase review/before and after study
FU: at end of treatment (duration, not reported)
ChiropracticImprovement feeding behaviourLow
Wiberg and Wiberg,45 2010DenmarkColicRetrospective review of clinical records
FU: 11 years
ChiropracticCrying timeMod
Cornall,50 2015AustraliaBreastfeeding difficultiesQualitative study
FU: none
OsteopathyObservation regarding ‘the osteopathic therapeutic cycle’High