Table 2

Baseline characteristics of older adults and nurses in intervention group and control group (n=89 older adults, 56 nurses)

Older adults factorsIntervention n=54Control n=35Total n=89
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Mean (SD) age, years90 (4.8)89.3 (4.9)89 (4.9)
 Women N (%)38 (70.3)28 (80)66 (74.1)
 Widowed/living without partner N (%)50 (92.5)29 (82.8)70 (88.7)
 Native language N (% Dutch)54 (100)35 (100)89 (100)
 Communication modality (% speech, hearing)54 (100)35 (100)89 (100)
Hearing and vision
Average threshold (SD) in decibels (dB) of the frequencies between 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz of best ear60 (18.2)52 (6.9)57 (15.2)
 Moderate hearing loss 40–60 dB N (%)39 (72.2)32 (91.4)71 (79.7)
 Severe hearing loss 61–80 dB N (%)8 (14.8)3 (8.5)11 (12.3)
 Profound hearing loss ≥81 dB N (%)7 (12.9)0 (0)7 (7.8)
Hearing aid ownership N (%)39 (72.2)24 (68.5)63 (70.7)
Diopter (SD, visual acuity (VA, Snellen), best eye0.24 (0.22)0.18 (0.19)0.22 (0.21)
 VA ≤0.5–0.3 diopter (dpt) and additional visual problems N (%)14 (25.9)3 (8.5)17 (19.1)
 Severe VA ≤0.3–0.05 dpt N (%)16 (29.6)10 (28.5)26 (29.2)
 Blindness <0.05 dpt N (%)24 (44.4)22 (62.8)46 (51.6)
Low vision aid ownership N (%)20 (36.3)6 (17.1)26 (29.2)
Health and health-related functioning
 Physical health (RAND-36), mean (SD)173 (58)176 (75)
 Mental health (RAND-36), mean (SD)275 (79)272 (89)
 ADL (Katz), mean (SD)3.8 (1.5)3.8 (1.4)3.8 (1.4)
 Depression (CES-D), mean (SD)17.3 (9.9)16.0 (8.9)16.8 (9.5)
 Extraversion (NEO-FFI), mean (SD)38.5 (4.4)39.1 (3.7)38.8 (4.1)
 Neuroticism (NEO-FFI), mean (SD)31.5 (6.2)32.5 (6.3)31.9 (6.2)
Nurses factorsn=34n=22n=56
 Women (%)30 (93.7)22 (100)52 (96.2)
 Education (% licensed practical nurse)31 (96.8)22 (100)53 (98.1)
 Mean (SD) years of nursing experience15.1 (9.9)11.1 (7.4)13.5 (9.1)
  • ADL, activities of daily living; CES-D, Centre for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale; NEO-FFI, Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Five-Factor Inventory; RAND-36, Rand Short-Form 36 Health Survey; VA, visual acuity.