Table 5

Associations between relationship factors and hospitalisation, quality of life and time to death

Risk factorStudynFollow-upResults (95% CI; P value)Analyses adjusted for*
Hospitalisation (one study)
 Relationship strainGodwin et al3529612 mOR 1.03 (0.92 to 1.14; 0.637)NR
Quality of life (two studies)
 Quality of relationship (patient view)Clare et al375120 mMD 0.31 (P=0.06)pqol, pd, cs, cqor
Shroff5283NRR2 0.179 (P<0.001)NR
 Quality of relationship (carer view)Clare et al375120 mMD −0.13 (P=0.89)pqol, pd, cs, cqor
Time to death (two studies)
 Instrumental copingMcClendon et al511415–9 yearsHR 0.99 (P=0.915)NR
 Acceptance copingMcClendon et al511415–9 yearsHR 1.09 (P=0.644)NR
 Wishful thinkingMcClendon et al511415–9 yearsHR 1.41 (P=0.019)NR
Snyder53233NRHR 0.88 (0.673 to 1.171; 0.4)a, d, g, nc
 Problem focused copingSnyder53233NRHR 0.80 (0.571 to 1.128; 0.2)a, d, g, nc
 Seeking social supportSnyder53233NRHR 1.056 (0.787 to 1.416; 0.7)a, d, g, nc
 Blaming selfSnyder53233NRHR 0.967 (0.768 to 1.218; 0.7)a, d, g, nc
 Avoidance copingSnyder53233NRHR1.021 (0.720 to 1.448; 0.9)a, d, g, nc
 Blaming othersSnyder53233NRHR 0.867 (0.632 to 1.190; 0.3)a, d, g, nc
 Counting blessingsSnyder53233NRHR 0.648 (0.454 to 0.926; 0.017)a, d, g, nc
 ReligiositySnyder53233NRHR 0.882 (0.682 to 1.142; 0.341)a, d, g, nc
  • *Prespecified key confounders: a, age; d, dementia severity; g, gender; s, socioeconomic status. All other confounders: cqor, carer quality of relationship; cs, carer stress; nc, non-coresidency; pd, PWD depression; Pqol, PWD quality of life.

  • HR > 1 indicates increased risk, HR < 1 indicates decreased risk . OR > 1 indicates increased odds of outcome, OR <1 indicates decreased odds of outcome.

  • MD, mean difference in outcome (Large differences between groups suggests that the exposure might affect the outcome. For continuous exposures, mean difference represents the change in the outcome for one unit increase in the exposure); NR, information not reported (where possible results and 95% CIs were calculated from raw data).