Table 2

Intake of probiotics before and during pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous women, n=37 050

Cases (controls)*Adjusted OR (CI)†P value
Preeclampsia all1836 (34 941)
 Overall0.02
 Before1.06 (0.83 to 1.35)0.65
 Early0.90 (0.72 to 1.12)0.35
 Late0.80 (0.68 to 0.94)0.007
Preeclampsia mild1066 (34 941)
 Overall0.62
 Before1.05 (0.77 to 1.43)0.77
 Early1.0 (0.75 to 1.32)0.98
 Late0.86 (0.70 to 1.06)0.15
Preeclampsia severe545 (34 941)
 Overall0.02
 Before1.00 (0.63 to 1.60)0.99
 Early0.82 (0.54 to 1.25)0.36
 Late0.68 (0.50 to 0.92)0.01
  • *The sum of mild and severe does not add up to all due to the fact that some were unspecified.

  • †Adjusted for maternal age, height and educational level; pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI); marital status; smoking, alcohol and intake of non-probiotic milk products during current pregnancy; family income; fetal sex; in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intake of dietary supplements (with and without vitamin D).