Table 3

Intake of probiotics before and during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery in singleton pregnancies, n=34 458

Preterm delivery (full term)Adjusted OR (CI)*P value
Preterm delivery all2455 (26  910)
 Overall0.08
 Before1.16 (0.92 to 1.45)0.21
 Early0.79 (0.64 to 0.97)0.03
 Late0.99 (0.85 to 1.14)0.85
Preterm delivery early498 (26 910)
 Overall0.76
 Before0.86 (0.55 to 1.37)0.52
 Early1.07 (0.70 to 1.62)0.76
 Late0.94 (0.69 to 1.28)0.69
Preterm delivery late1957 (26  910)
 Overall0.05
 Before1.25 (0.97 to 1.60)0.08
 Early0.73 (0.57 to 0.92)0.008
 Late0.98 (0.85 to 1.13)0.78
Spontaneous Preterm delivery1536 (26  910)
 Overall0.03
 Before1.23 (0.94 to 1.62)0.14
 Early0.74 (0.57 to 0.96)0.02
 Late0.97 (0.67 to 1.40)0.85
Iatrogenic
Preterm delivery
919 (26 910)
 Overall0.76
 Before1.02 (0.71 to 1.47)0.90
 Early0.90 (0.64 to 1.25)0.52
 Late1.06 (0.85 to 1.33)0.60
  • *Adjusted for maternal age, height and educational level; parity; history of late miscarriage; history of preterm delivery (for multiparous only); pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI); marital status; smoking, alcohol, and intake of non-probiotic milk products during current pregnancy; family income; fetal sex; in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intake of dietary supplements (with and without vitamin D).