Table 1

Possible risk factors of neonatal pneumonia

CategoryFactors
Patient-relatedAge
Gender
Low birth weight
Small-for-age
Prematurity
Birth order
APGAR score at birth
Concomitant conditions/comorbid illnesses (eg, congenital heart disease, asthma, haemoglobin, cyanosis, hypothermia)
Congenital malformations
Feeding practices
Others
Parent-relatedSociodemographics
Economic
Cultural practices in the context
Medical history
Vaccination
Healthcare-seeking knowledge, attitude, behaviour
Family planning variables
Others
Maternal and pregnancy- relatedGestational age
Intrauterine growth restriction
Conditions/diseases‚ÄČin pregnancy
Urinary tract infections
Mode and place of delivery
Skilled birth attendance
Foul-smelling liquor
Prolonged rupture of membranes
Prolonged labour
Intrapartum fever
Others
Environment- relatedPlace of residence (eg, urban, rural, periurban)
Housing
Overcrowding
Water, sanitation and hygiene
Indoor air pollution (including cooking smoke, mosquito coils/repellents, secondhand smoke exposure)
Pets/livestock
Rainfall
Outdoor air pollution
Seasonality
Others
Health s ystem - related
Iatrogenic