Table 2

Results of multilevel logistic regression illustrating adjusted trends and associations of positive perceptions of healthcare provision among European Union citizens between 2009 and 2013

VariableORP value95% CI
Year
 2009*
 20100.980.5100.94 to 1.03
 20110.79<0.0010.75 to 0.84
 20120.85<0.0010.80 to 0.90
 20130.85<0.0010.80 to 0.90
Gender
 Male*
 Female0.89<0.0010.87 to 0.92
Age
 75 years and older*
 65–74 years0.82<0.0010.77 to 0.88
 55–64 years0.75<0.0010.70 to 0.80
 45–54 years0.75<0.0010.70 to 0.80
 35–44 years0.77<0.0010.71 to 0.82
 25–34 years0.80<0.0010.74 to 0.86
 15–24 years0.900.0100.83 to 0.98
Marital status
 Single*
 Married or living with a partner0.930.0010.89 to 0.97
 Separated/divorced/widowed0.970.2660.92 to 1.02
Area of residence
 Rural area or village*
 Small/middle town1.030.0691.00 to 1.07
 Large town1.010.5520.97 to 1.05
Employment status
 Unemployed*
 Not working0.980.5510.93 to 1.04
 Employed0.910.0010.87 to 0.96
Society level
 Low*
 Middle1.12<0.0011.08 to 1.16
 High1.27<0.0011.21 to 1.32
Difficulty paying bills
 Almost never*
 Sometimes or most of the time0.81<0.0010.79 to 0.84
Education
 15 years and below or no full-time education*
 16–19 years0.970.0980.93 to 1.01
 20–22 years1.020.4940.97 to 1.08
 23 years and older1.030.2190.98 to 1.09
Life satisfaction
 Not at all satisfied*
 Not very satisfied1.63<0.0011.52 to 1.75
 Fairly satisfied3.56<0.0013.33 to 3.82
 Very satisfied5.65<0.0015.23 to 6.10
GDP per capita1.08<0.0011.07 to 1.09
Total expenditure on health as per cent of GDP1.17<0.0011.11 to 1.24
Government expenditure on health as per cent of total expenditure on health1.020.6840.91 to 1.15
  • ORs and 95% CI rounded to two decimal places; OR for GDP per capita refers to a $1000 increase; OR for government expenditure on health as per cent of total expenditure on health refers to a 10% increase; OR for total expenditure on health as per cent of GDP refers to a 1% increase.

  • *Reference category.

  • GDP, gross domestic product.